Certified Sexual Assault Examiner SANE-A Nurse Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Nurse, Registered, MSN, SANE A, Sexual Assualt, Child Abuse, Forensic Nurse,


Registered Nurse
Graduated University of North Dakota
School of Nursing, Bachelor of Science 1973
Sexual Assault Nurse Training Program, 1991
Pomerado Hospital, Poway, CA
Death Investigator’s Training Program, 1994
St. Louis University School of Medicine
St. Louis, MO
Forensic Nursing,
San Diego, CA
John Hopkins University, 2005
Master of Science in Nursing
Graduate in June 2006
University of Phoenix MSN
Advanced Strangulation Course, 2012
Strangulation Institute
San Diego, Ca.
Masters Strangulation Course 2018
Strangulation Institute
San Diego, Ca.


1973 Registered Nurse RN * California and Georgia current
1973 Public Health Nurse Certificate
1973 Basic Cardiac Life Support Provider * expires 2022
1988 NRP Neonatal Resuscitation Program Provider * expired 2005
1989 Pal’s Pediatric Advance Life Support Provider * expired 2007
1990 CPN Certified Pediatric Nurse **
1997 Co-author “Color Atlas of Sexual Assault”, Mosby Co.
1994-2004 Diplomat American Board of Forensic Examiners
1998-2004 Diplomat American Board of Forensic Nurses
2000 Fellow American Academy of Forensic Science
2002 SANE A/A Certified Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner *
2003 Co-author “Sexual Assault across the Life Span,” GW Medical Company
2003 Co-author “Quick-Reference Sexual Assault” GW Medical Company
2007 SANE-P Certified Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner*
2009 DF-IAFN Distinguished Fellow International Association of Forensic Nurses
2012 Co-author “Workbooks for Adolescent/Adult SA” STM Company
2015 Co-author “Quick-Reference Sexual Assault” STM Company
2016 Co-author “Sexual Assault Victimization across the Life Span, Second Edition
2016 Author “Pediatric SANE Workbook”, Child Abuse Atlas on line
2017 Co-author “Non fatal strangulation workbook”, STM publications
2017 Co-author: “Child Abuse Quick Reference” 3rd edition, STM publications
2017 Contributor: “A Guide to Mastery in Clinical Nursing: A Comprehensive Reference”, Springer publications
2017 Co-author: Adolescent and Ault Sexual Assault Assessment”, 2nd editions


As a Registered Nurse since 1973, I have:
Provided direct Nursing Care in various areas of medicine, and have cared for hundreds of patients with injuries and skin types in various stages of acuteness, from fresh to days and weeks old.
Assisted with and visualized hundreds of pelvic examines on adult patients for pelvic infections, pregnancy, catheterization, and medical work-up.
1986-Assisted with or conducted over 3,800 examines on children and 1991-over 1,800 examines on adolescents/adults for direct visualization and colposcope/photo documentation exams to rule out sexual abuse.
Testified in a court of law as an expert witness on sexual assault on adolescents/adults or children > 120x times.
As a forensic nurse
I provide the appropriate health care response to the sequelae of criminal and interpersonal violence.
In cases of domestic violence, child maltreatment, interpersonal violence or elder abuse, Forensic Nurses implement practices which aid law enforcement agencies in meeting the objectives of criminal investigation and share responsibility with the legal system to identify crime victims
Prevent further injury or death due to cyclical violence and to provide early detection of potentially abusive situations. Early detection is a critical step in stemming the effects of human violence and thus provides an immeasurable savings in lives. It is cost effective to both health care and legal systems.


Date Employer Area
2-2019 to Present Live SAFE Resources Contract Forensic Nurse per diem
1/2012 to 12/2018 Barbara Sinatra Center CAC, Nurse Examiner SANE-P per diem nurse
Rancho Mirage, CA
1/2008 to 2013 Pesi Pesi-Speaker on Forensic Topics
2/2007 to 12/2018/ Eisenhower Medical Center, Nurse Examiner SANE A-per diem nurse
Rancho Mirage, CA
8/2005 to present Self Employed Forensic Nurse Consultant
EVAW Board Director/Treasure
7/2006 to 1/2012 Barbara Sinatra Center CAC, Nurse Examiner Pediatric Sexual Abuse Contract nurse
Rancho Mirage, CA
1977 – 7/2005: Palomar Medical Center Pediatrics, NICU, Child Abuse Program,
Escondido, CA Pediatric Outreach Education – Developed community outreach programs

1977 1983 Palomar Medical Center Staff Nurse, Pediatrics, Peds Special Care
Escondido, CA
1983 – 7/2005 Palomar/Pomerado Health System Nurse Director: Pediatrics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Child Abuse Program
1991 – 7/2005 Pomerado Hospital Sexual Assault Response Team Member/Staff Nurse
Poway, CA 92064
1994 – 2002: Palomar/Pomerado Health System District Director: Respiratory Services, Pulmonary-EEG-Sleep Lab
1997 – 7/2005 Palomar/Pomerado Health System District Director: Forensic Health Services/Peds-NICU
1975 1977 St. Francis Hospital Staff Nurse, Labor and Delivery, Obstetrics, Relief Hospital Supervisor on weekends – Breckenridge, MN Developed and implemented Prenatal Classes

1974 1975 Palomar Memorial Hospital
Escondido, CA Pediatrics Established Peds Special Care Unit
1974 – 1975 Volunteer Escondido Community Clinic Staff Nurse, Pediatrics
Palomar Hospital
Escondido, CA

1973 1974 San Bernardino County Hospital Staff Nurse: Acute Medical
San Bernardino, CA


Organization Offices Held
NANN National Association of Neonatal Nurses – membership expired 4/2005
SCANN Southern California Association of Neonatal Nurses – membership expired 1/2005 Vice President 1990 1991
President 1991 1992
Past President 1993 1994
APSAC American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children * 2008-2018
CAPSAC California American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children Board Member 2008-2018
CSAIA California Sexual Assault Investigators Association expired 8/2011
AAFS American Academy Of Forensic Science: Provisional Member 1995 – 1997
General Member 1997
Fellow 2000-2016 Retired Fellow 2016
IAFN International Association of Forensic Nurses Charter member 1992
Secretary/Treasurer 1998-2000, 2000-2002
Finance Committee member 2008-2009
IAFN newsletter “On the Edge” Column editor- Hot Topics 2008-2012 Board Member
IAFN Foundation 2009-2014
DABFE Diplomat American Board of Forensic Examiners-expired 2004
DABFN Diplomat American Board of Forensic Nursing-expired 2004
AALNC American Association of Legal Nurse Consultants-expired 2011
SDAALNC San Diego Chapter American Association Legal Nurse Consultants-expired 2011
SDNASPA San Diego Chapter of North American Society for Adolescent Medicine 2003, 2004
STTI Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society Nursing, 2000-2012
SCCBW Statewide California Coalition for Battered Women, 2003
CALCASA California Coalition against Sexual Assault 2006
IAC&ME International Association of Coroners & Medical Examiners Fellow Member 2017-2018
Strangulation Institute Advisory Committee Member 2012-present
EVAWI Board Member Current Treasure

AFN Academy of Forensic Nursing President and Founding Board Member 2018 to present
Immediate past President 2020-2022

July 2020 Disability without Abuse Project Advisory Board member


Awards Presenter
Employee of the Month Palomar Medical Center, 1979
Child Abuse Program, Nurse Recognition CAP, 1990 1991
Kids Care Fair Provider 1991, 1992, 1993
National Award of “Outstanding Achievement” IAFN, Nov. 2, 1996
Response from a Heart “SART” Award County of San Diego SART, July 10, 1998
Honoree of Distinction Award Soroptomist of Rancho Bernardo, 2001
TWIN (Tribute to Women in Industry) Honoree 2003
PWR (Professional Women’s Round Table) Women of Excellence, 2003
EVAW International 2015 Founding Board Special Award
Virginia Lynch Pioneer Award IAFN 2016
Allied Professional Award Justice Department OVC 2019


March of Dimes Speaker: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 1998
Bibliography in Who’s Who in American Nursing, 1988, 1993-1994, 1995-1996 editions.
Member, Health Advisory Board of March of Dimes, 1997, 1998
Committee Member of 1997 International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) National Conference
Member of ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) for sexual assault development of standards under the American Academy of Forensic Science, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003
Secretary/Treasurer for IAFN 1998-2000, 2000-2001
Member of the Finance Committee for IAFN 2008-2009
IAFN foundation Board Member 2009-2014, Treasurer 2009-2011, 2013-2014
Member of task force of the Commission of Peace Officers Standards and Training for development of tele-course on Sexual Assault 1998, 1999.2006 revision of course/video
Member of ad hoc Advisory Committee OCJP State Grant for domestic violence, sexual assault, 1998, 1999
Co-Coordinator IAFN First Clinical Update Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault 2000, Phoenix, Arizona
Member planning committee IAFN 2001-2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2004 Chicago,
Statewide Advisory Group (SAG) member for Adolescent/Adult Sexual Assault Domain (CMTC), 2001-2002
Statewide Domestic Violence Medical Forensic Advisory Committee 2004
Editorial Advisory Board Member of Forensic Nurse Magazine 2002-2003
IAFN Chapter Liaison Chair 2000-2007
Chair, County SART Committee 2002
Second National SART Team Training, New Orleans 2003 Planning Committee
Chapter committee development for IAFN 2000-2006
Board Member EVAW International 2003-2017 Treasurer 2012-2018
Vendor Chair, National EVAW Conference, Houston, Texas. 2007
Task Force Member IAFN Primary Prevention of Violence Grant 2006-2007
SANE P Ad Hoc Committee 2006-2007
POST Development of Tele-course on Sexual Assault investigations 2006-2007
Contributed to: Crime Victims with Disabilities: What the Prosecutor of autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation needs to know 2006
Task force member Loan Forgiveness Legislation- CA State Assembly Shirley Krohn 2007-2008
Board member CAPSAC 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016-2018
Group meeting to update the SANE-A certification test questions: Salt Lake City 2009 2 days
Advisory Board Member Abused Kids with Disabilities: A National Training and Support Program 2010-2011
Advisory Board, Peace Corp, Washington DC 2012-2015
Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center (OVC TTAC) as the professional currently featured in their Consultant Spotlight Gallery
Listed on the website for the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board, where they invite visitors to “Meet a Pediatric Nursing Professional
National Strangulation Institution Advisory Committee 2015-2020
Strangulation subcommittee member IAFN 5/2015- 11/2016
Planning committee IAFN International Conference Denver, Co 2016
Planning committee “Pediatric Sane Preceptor ship” Minneapolis CAC 2016
Strangulation Institute Medical nursing committee member 2016-2018
California State Advisory committee member 925, 930 forms for Pediatrics 2016-2017
SANE Educational Clinical Guidelines committee member update 2018 IAFN
Georgia State expert panel committee Core Partner 2019


Provides the medical component of the Sexual Assault Response Team (SART). The team has three components: law enforcement, forensic examiners, and advocacy groups. This multi-disciplinary approach coordinates immediate and follow-up medical, advocacy and criminal justice services to victims of sexual assault, thereby increasing the potential for recovery of the victim and increasing the prosecutability of perpetrators of such crimes.


November 1991 through 7/2005
7/2006 to present

After fulfillment of training and receiving a passing score on written examination, I:
Perform physical/psycho social assessment
Collect and document physical and laboratory evidence
Provide information and referral for patient
Present expert testimony in court


40 hour didactic training Pomerado Hospital, Poway, CA Completed 9/91
40 hour Preceptor ship at Planned Parenthood, Escondido Police, San Diego Crime Lab, CAP (Child Abuse Program) Completed 10/91

Course Content – Taught by Dr. Laura Slaughter, Director of the SART in San Luis Obispo since 1978. She is a statewide lecturer for the California District Attorney Association on medical findings in sexual assault, and also serves as an expert witness in court for such cases.

Lectures by Dr. L. Slaughter included recognition and understanding of:
Normal Human Sexual Response
Injuries caused by non consensual sexual intercourse
Forensic significance of body fluids
Evaluation of ecchymosed (bruises)
Mechanism of injury, absence of human sexual response, lack of pelvic tilt, lack of partner assistance with insertion, lack of lubrication, increased force (physical power or strength possessed by a person), and lack of relaxation.
Recognition of micro trauma, tears, pattern of injury, cervical findings in rape victims and the use of Toluidine Blue dye in the sexual examination.

In addition to Dr. Slaughter’s significant contributions to the SART Training Program, the comprehensive program also included:
Presentation by Sheriff Department Crime Lab San Diego – instruction on use of protocols for evidence collection, and current methods for preserving of evidence, walk through of procedures
Presentation by Arthur Danner, JD, District Attorney for the City of Santa Cruz, CA – instruction on the judicial system, rules of evidence, mechanics of case presentation and the role of the expert witness.
Presentation by Norman Sperber, DDS, Forensic Odontologist and consultant for law enforcement – training on the Recognition, Investigation and Preservation of Bite marks as Evidence in assault cases.
Presentation by experienced victim advocates, local detectives and criminologists, sexual assault survivors. Also, presented were cultural environmental considerations related to the victim of assault and rape trauma syndrome.


Training to prepare investigator to conduct scientific, systematic investigations of death. Also presented was cause, manner, and mechanism of death. Types of deaths covered: drug and alcohol, asphyxia deaths, blunt and sharp injuries, SIDS and Child maltreatment. Rape homicide and serial killing was also presented as well as legal proceedings.


Learn how to: identify the signs and symptoms of near-fatal strangulation cases; understand and recognize the anatomy and medical aspects of surviving and non-surviving victims; investigate and document cases for prosecution; prosecute cases, including using experts in court; and, most importantly, enhance victim safety through trauma-informed advocacy services.


Date CEU Course Location
January 22-25, 1992 Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
August 13-14, 1992 Sexual Assault Clinical/Examiner Training Minneapolis, MN
January 26-30, 1993 San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
February 12, 1993 SART Training: The Medical Case Review and Advanced education of patterns of injury consistent with non-consensual versus consensual intercourse. Dr. Slaughter, Southwest College San Diego, CA
June 11, 1993 Forensic Nursing/SART Update – Virginia Lynch RN, MSN, Forensic Nurse Specialist San Diego, CA
October 8-10, 1993 International Association of Forensic Nursing Sacramento, CA
January 18-20, 1994 SART Training: Dr. Slaughter Poway, CA
January 26, 1994 San Diego Conf. Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
April 25 28, 1994 The Medico legal Death Investigator Training Course St. Louis, MO
May 1-3, 1994 Clinical Forensic Medicine First Annual Postgraduate Clinical Forensic Medicine Conference Louisville, KY
June, 1994 Forensic Interview Techniques for Sexual Assault Examiners – Presented by Detective Mark, Manriequez, SDSPomerado Hospital Poway, CA
October 21-23, 1994 International Association of Forensic Nursing Washington, D.C.
November 19, 1994 Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Information Update. Physical Assessment and Findings in the Pregnant, Post-partum, and Post-Menopausal Female presented by Susan Elliott, RNC, BSN, OB/GYN Practitioner and Sexual Assault Evidence in the Crime Lab presented by Dr. Patrick O’Donnell, Criminalist, SDPD. Also, Victim Impact Statements; Trial, Sentencing, and Mock Trial, conducted by: Dan Lamborne, DDA; Lieutenant Charles Stinson, USN; Peter Cross, DDA; Judith Rowland, Esq. and Sgt. JoAnne Welter, SDPD University of San Diego, CA
January 16-20, 1995 Sexual Assault Response Team – SART Certificate Training Pomerado Hospital Poway, CA
January 23-25, 1995 San Diego Conference Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
February 13-18, 1995 American Academy of Forensic Science Seattle, WA March 3, 1995
False Allegation of Sexual Assault Pomerado Hospital Poway, CA
April, 1995 Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Informational Update. Normal Assessment and Documentation of Female Genitalia and Knowledge and Utilization of the OCJP form 923 University of San Diego, CA
May 23-25, 1995 Sexual Assault Team/Child Abuse Training Program – 14th Annual Conference
UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA
October 2-10, 1995 International Association of Forensic Nursing Louisville, KY
January 15-16, 1996 Sexual Assault Response Team SART Certification Training Pomerado Hospital Poway, CA
January 22-24, 1996 San Diego Conference Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
February 20-23, 1996 American Academy of Forensic Science Nashville, TN
June 28, 1996 Rohypnol and How to Test For It San Diego, CA
November 1-4, 1996 International Association of Forensic Nursing: 4th Annual Scientific Meeting Kansas City, MO
September-December, 1996 Forensic Photography Palomar College San Marcos, CA
January 27, 1997 Advanced Workshop: Medical Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children San Diego, CA
January 28-31, 1997 San Diego Conference on Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
March 17-22, 1997 Sexual Assault Response Team Training Pomerado Hospital, USD San Diego, CA
March 23, 1997 Forensic Photography for Medical Personnel USD San Diego, CA
September 25-29, 1997 International Association of Forensic Nurses, 5th Assembly Irvine, CA
December 10-12, 1997 DNA Conference Chicago, IL
January 5-10, 1998 Sexual Assault Response Team Training Pomerado Hospital, USD, San Diego, CA
January 30-31, 1998 Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
February 8-13, 1998 American Academy of Forensic Science San Francisco, CA
March 6, 1998 Date Rape Drugs Update Newark, NJ
June 8, 9, 1998 Sexual Assault Team Training Sacramento, CA
August 3-8, 1998 Sexual Assault Team Training 9th Annual Conference Rancho Bernardo, CA
October 1-5, 1998 IAFN Conference 6th Annual Assembly Pittsburgh, PA
December 3, 1998 Domestic Violence for SART nurses CHHC, San Diego, CA
January 25, 1999 Medical Evaluation of the Sexually Abused Child Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
February 14-18, 1999 American Academy of Forensic Service Orlando, FL
June 3-4, 1999 Hall of Justice, Sexual Assault Training San Diego, CA
July 12, 1999 Forensic Photography and Medical Evaluation of the Child Rancho Bernardo, CA
July 13-17, 1999 Sexual Assault Team Training 10th Annual Conference Rancho Bernardo, CA
August 5-9, 1999 7th Scientific Assembly IAFN Phoenix, AZ
January 24-29, 2000 Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
February 21-26, 2000 American Academy of Forensic Science Reno, NV
March 11-12, 2000 IAFN First Clinical Update Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Phoenix, AZ
June 24, 2000 Domestic Violence, Evidence Collection & Prosecution Los Angeles, CA
September 23, 2000 Unfounded Allegations of Sexual Assault Poway, CA
October 13-16, 2000 IAFN 8th Scientific Assembly Calgary, Canada
January 22-26, 2001 San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment San Diego, CA
March 14-15, 2001 Child Abuse Training Huntsville, AL
May 26-27, 2001 1st National SART Training Conference San Antonio, TX
August 28-29, 2001 Forensic Clinical Nursing Update 2001 Phoenix, AZ
September 8, 2001 An Inside look at American Indians and Intervention in their worlds. San Diego, CA
Sept. 26-Oct. 1, 2001 International Forensic Nursing Conference. Orlando, FL
March 9, 2002 Civil Recourse for Sexual Assault Victims Santa Fe Springs, CA
March 12-16, 2002 International Conference on Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking San Diego, CA
July 20, 2002 Advance Practice for Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner Los Angeles, CA
October 9, 2002 Forensic Photography Minneapolis, MN
October 10-13, 2002 International Forensic Nursing Conference Minneapolis, MN
November 4, 2002 Infection control aspects associated with the use of humidified air in NICU San Diego, CA
November 11, 2002 Management Intensive Nursing Leadership Academy Escondido, CA
January 6, 2003 Nursing Leadership Customizing the Job Escondido, CA
February 18, 2003 Refresher training from the Crime Lab Escondido, CA
March, 2003 Patient Privacy & HIPAA Standards Escondido, CA
March, 2003 Managing in a Union Environment Escondido, CA
March 6, 2003 PAL’s recertification Rancho Penesquitos, CA
April 7-8, 2003 DNA from Crime Scene to Courtroom Washington, DC
April 23-25, 2003 International Conference on Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Stalking San Diego, CA
May 2, 2003 Setting Goals & Motivating Staff Escondido, CA
May 22-24, 2003 SART Training New Orleans, LA
June 18-20, 2003 Forensic Focus Conference Phoenix, AZ
May 3-5, 2004 National Children’s Alliance Conference Washington, DC
August 4, 2004 JCAHO Survey Prep Class Escondido, CA
September 8, 2004 Trafficking and Slavery Escondido, CA
October 20-24, 2004 IAFN Conference Chicago, IL
October 26-27, 2004 Making a Difference Conference San Diego, CA
June, 2006 SART/SANE Conference San Francisco, CA
October, 2005 IAFN Conference Washington, D.C.
February, 2006 Campus Sexual Assault/CALCASA Sacramento, CA
March, 2006 Elder Abuse Escondido, CA
April, 2006 CSAIA Conference Shell Beach, CA
July 12, 13, 2006 Forensic Response to Missing Abducted Children Kansas City, Mo.
Sept. 26-29, 2006 IAFN National Meeting Vancouver, Canada
Oct. 24-27, 2006 CSAIA Fall Training San Francisco, Ca
April 26-28, 2007 AALNC, Annual meeting Austin, Texas
May 28th-31st, 2007 SART/SANE Conference Tampa, Florida
Oct. 17-20th, 2007 IAFN Conference Salt Lake City, Utah
Sept. 13, 2008 Child Abuse 101 San Diego, CA
Sept. 17-20, 2008 IAFN National Conference Dallas, Texas
Jan. 26th, 2009 APSAC annual meeting, Shaken baby’s and head trauma San Diego, CA
Feb. 18-20, 2009 AAFS Annual Meeting Denver, Co.
See CEU certificates on file for further CEU’s