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Certified Sexual Assault Examiner SANE-A Nurse Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Nurse, Registered, MSN, SANE A, Sexual Assualt, Child Abuse, Forensic Nurse,


  • Registered Nurse
  • Graduated University of North Dakota
  • School of Nursing, Bachelor of Science 1973
  • Sexual Assault Nurse Training Program, 1991
  • Pomerado Hospital, Poway, CA
  • Death Investigator’s Training Program, 1994
  • St. Louis University School of Medicine
  • St. Louis, MO
  • Forensic Nursing,
  • San Diego, CA
  • John Hopkins University, 2005
  • Master of Science in Nursing
  • Graduate in June 2006
  • University of Phoenix MSN


1973    Registered Nurse RN
1973    Public Health Nurse Certificate
1973    Basic Cardiac Life Support Provider * expires 2016
1988    NRP Neonatal Resuscitation Program Provider * expired 2005
1989    Pal’s Pediatric Advance Life Support Provider * expired 2007
1990    CPN Certified Pediatric Nurse **
1994-2004    Diplomat American Board of Forensic Examiners
1998-2004    Diplomat American Board of Forensic Nurses
2000    Fellow American Academy of Forensic Science
2002    SANE A/A Certified Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner *
2007    SANE-P Certified Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner*
2009    DF-IAFN Distinguished Fellow International Association of Forensic Nurses
*Fulfill licensure requirements every two years
**Fulfill re certification requirements annually
RN License in California, Minnesota current and North Dakota expired 2008


As a Registered Nurse since 1973, I have:
Provided direct Nursing Care in various areas of medicine, and have cared for hundreds of patients with injuries and skin types in various stages of acuteness, from fresh to days and weeks old. Assisted with and visualized hundreds of pelvic examines on adult patients for pelvic infections, pregnancy, catheterization, and medical work-up. Assisted with or conducted over 3,000 examines on children for direct visualization and colposcope exam to rule out sexual abuse in children. Testified in a court of law as an expert witness on sexual assault on adults or children > 100 times. As a forensic nurse I provide the appropriate health care response to the sequelae of criminal and interpersonal violence. In cases of domestic violence, child maltreatment, interpersonal violence or elder abuse, Forensic Nurses implement practices which aid law enforcement agencies in meeting the objectives of criminal investigation and share responsibility with the legal system to identify crime victims. Prevent further injury or death due to cyclical violence and to provide early detection of potentially abusive situations.  Early detection is a critical step in stemming the effects of human violence and thus provides an immeasurable savings in lives.
It is cost effective to both health care and legal systems.


1/2012 to Present     Barbara Sinatra Center CAC,
Nurse Examiner SANE-P contract nurse

1/2008 to Present     Pesi    Pesi-Speaker on Forensic Topics

2/2007 to Present     Eisenhower Medical Center,
Nurse Examiner SANE-contract nurse

8/2005 to present     Self Emploued    Forensic Nurse Consultant
EVAW Board Director/Treasure

7/2006 to 1/2012     Barbara Sinatra Center CAC,
Nurse Examiner Pediatric Sexual Abuse Per Diem

1977 – 7/2005:        Palomar Medical Center
Pediatrics, NICU, Child Abuse Program,
Pediatric Outreach Education – Developed community outreach programs

1977   1983            Palomar Medical Center
Staff Nurse, Pediatrics, Peds Special Care

1983 – 7/2005        Palomar/Pomerado Health System    Nurse Director: Pediatrics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Child Abuse Program

1991 – 7/2005        Pomerado Hospital
Sexual Assault Response Team Member/Staff Nurse

1994 – 2002:          Palomar/Pomerado Health System    District Director: Respiratory Services, Pulmonary-EEG-Sleep Lab

1997 – 7/2005        Palomar/Pomerado Health System    District Director: Forensic Health Services/Peds-NICU

1975   1977           St. Francis Hospital
Staff Nurse, Labor and Delivery, Obstetrics, Relief Hospital Supervisor on weekends – Developed and implemented Prenatal Classes

1974   1975           Palomar Memorial Hospital
Pediatrics   Established Peds Special Care Unit

1974 – 1975          Volunteer Escondido Community Clinic
Staff Nurse, Pediatrics

1973   1974           San Bernardino County Hospital
Staff Nurse: Acute Medical


NANN         National Association of Neonatal Nurses – membership expired 4/2005
SCANN       Southern California Association of Neonatal Nurses – membership expired 1/2005

  • Vice President 1990 1991
  • President 1991 1992
  • Past President 1993 1994

APSAC       American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children *
CAPSAC     California American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children

  • Board Member 2008-2012

CSAIA        California Sexual Assault Investigators Association expired 8/2011
AAFS          American Academy Of Forensic Science: Provisional

  • Member 1995 – 1997
  • General Member 1997
  • Fellow 2000

IAFN          International Association of Forensic Nurses

  • Charter member 1992
  • Secretary/Treasurer  1998-2000, 2000-2002
  • Finance Committee member 2008-2009

DABFE       Diplomat American Board of Forensic Examiners-expired 2004
DABFN       Diplomat American Board of Forensic Nursing-expired 2004
AALNC       American Association of Legal Nurse Consultants-expired 2011
SDAALNC   San Diego Chapter American Association Legal Nurse    Consultants-expired 2011
SDNASPA   San Diego Chapter of North American Society for Adolescent Medicine 2003, 2004
STTI           Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society Nursing, 2000-2002, 2003-2012
SCCBW       Statewide California Coalition for Battered Women, 2003
CALCASA   California Coalition against Sexual Assault 2006


Employee of the Month                               Palomar Medical Center, 1979
Child Abuse Program,                                  Nurse Recognition    CAP, 1990 1991
Kids Care Fair Provider                                1991, 1992, 1993
National Award of “Outstanding Achievement”    IAFN, Nov. 2, 1996
Response from a Heart “SART” Award          County of San Diego SART, July 10, 1998
Honoree of Distinction Award                        Soroptomist of Rancho Bernardo, 2001
TWIN (Tribute to Women in Industry)           Honoree 2003
PWR (Professional Women’s Round Table)    Women of Excellence, 2003
DF-IAFN                                                      IAFN, 2009


March of Dimes Speaker: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 1998
Bibliography in Who’s Who in American Nursing, 1988, 1993-1994, 1995-1996 editions.
Member, Health Advisory Board of March of Dimes, 1997, 1998
Committee Member of 1997 International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) National Conference
Member of ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) for sexual assault development of standards under the American Academy of Forensic Science, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003
Secretary/Treasurer for IAFN 1998-2000, 2000-2001
Member of the Finance Committee for IAFN 2008-2009
IAFN foundation Board Member 2009-2014, Treasurer 2009-2011, 2013
Member of task force of the Commission of Peace Officers Standards and Training for development of tele-course on Sexual Assault 1998, 1999.2006 revision of course/video
Member of ad hoc Advisory Committee OCJP State Grant for domestic violence, sexual assault, 1998, 1999
Co-Coordinator IAFN First Clinical Update Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault 2000, Phoenix, Arizona
Member planning committee IAFN 2001-2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2004  Chicago,
Statewide Advisory Group (SAG) member for Adolescent/Adult Sexual Assault Domain (CMTC), 2001-2002
Statewide Domestic Violence Medical Forensic Advisory Committee 2004
Editorial Advisory Board Member of Forensic Nurse Magazine 2002-2003
IAFN Chapter Liaison Chair 2000-2007
Chair, County SART Committee 2002
Second National SART Team Training, New Orleans 2003 Planning Committee
Chapter committee development for IAFN 2000-2006
Board Member EVAW International 2003-2015 Treasurer 2012-15
Vendor Chair, National EVAW Conference, Houston, Texas. 2007
Task Force Member IAFN Primary Prevention of Violence Grant 2006-2007
SANE P Ad Hoc Committee 2006-2007
POST Development of Tele-course on Sexual Assault investigations 2006-2007
Contributed to: Crime Victims with Disabilities: What the Prosecutor of autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation needs to know 2006
Task force member Loan Forgiveness Legislation- CA State Assembly Shirley Krohn 2007-2008
Board member CAPSAC 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Group meeting to update the SANE-A certification test questions: Salt Lake City 2009 2 days
Advisory Board Member Abused Kids with Disabilities
A National Training and Support Program 2010-2011
Advisory Board, Peace Corp, Washington DC 2012-2015    Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center (OVC TTAC) as the professional currently featured in their Consultant Spotlight Gallery
Listed on the website for the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board, where they invite visitors to “Meet a Pediatric Nursing Professional.


Provides the medical component of the Sexual Assault Response Team (SART).  The team has three components: law enforcement, forensic examiners, and advocacy groups.  This multi-disciplinary approach coordinates immediate and follow-up medical, advocacy and criminal justice services to victims of sexual assault, thereby increasing the potential for recovery of the victim and increasing the prosecutability of perpetrators of such crimes.


November 1991 through 7/2005
7/2006 to present

After fulfillment of training and receiving a passing score on written examination, I:
Perform physical/psycho social assessment
Collect and document physical and laboratory evidence
Provide information and referral for patient
Present expert testimony in court


Training to prepare investigator to conduct scientific, systematic investigations of death. Also presented was cause, manner, and mechanism of death.  Types of deaths covered: drug and alcohol, asphyxia deaths, blunt and sharp injuries, SIDS and Child maltreatment.  Rape homicide and serial killing was also presented as well as legal proceedings.


January 22-25, 1992    Responding to Child Maltreatment
August 13-14, 1992     Sexual Assault Clinical/Examiner Training
January 26-30, 1993    San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment
February 12, 1993       SART Training: The Medical Case Review and Advanced education of patterns of injury consistent with non-consensual versus consensual intercourse.
June 11, 1993              Forensic Nursing/SART Update – Virginia Lynch RN, MSN, Forensic Nurse Specialist
October 8-10, 1993     International Association of Forensic Nursing
January 18-20, 1994    SART Training: Dr. Slaughter
January 26, 1994         San Diego Conf. Responding to Child Maltreatment
April 25 28, 1994         The Medico legal Death Investigator Training Course
May 1-3, 1994             Clinical Forensic Medicine First Annual Postgraduate Clinical Forensic Medicine Conference
June, 1994                   Forensic Interview Techniques for Sexual Assault Examiners – Presented by Detective Mark, Manriequez, SDSO
October 21-23, 1994    International Association of Forensic Nursing
November 19, 1994     Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Information Update. Physical Assessment and Findings in the Pregnant, Post-partum, and Post-Menopausal Female pact
January 16-20, 1995    Sexual Assault Response Team – SART Certificate Training
January 23-25, 1995    San Diego Conference Responding to Child Maltreatment
February 13-18, 1995   American Academy of Forensic Science
March 3, 1995             False Allegation of Sexual Assault
April, 1995                  Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Informational Update.  Normal Assessment and Documentation of Female Genitalia and Knowledge and Utilization of the       OCJP form 923
May 23-25, 1995         Sexual Assault Team/Child Abuse Training Program – 14th Annual Conference
October 2-10, 1995      International Association of Forensic Nursing
January 15-16, 1996    Sexual Assault Response Team SART Certification Training
January 22-24, 1996    San Diego Conference Responding to Child Maltreatment
February 20-23, 1996   American Academy of Forensic Science
June 28, 1996              Rohypnol and How to Test For It
November 1-4, 1996    International Association of Forensic Nursing: 4th Annual Scientific Meeting
September-December, 1996    Forensic Photography    Palomar College
January 27, 1997         Advanced Workshop: Medical Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children
January 28-31, 1997    San Diego Conference on Child Maltreatment
March 17-22, 1997      Sexual Assault Response Team Training
March 23, 1997           Forensic Photography for Medical Personnel
September 25-29, 1997    International Association of Forensic Nurses, 5th Assembly
December 10-12, 1997    DNA Conference
January 5-10, 1998      Sexual Assault Response Team Training
January 30-31, 1998     Responding to Child Maltreatment
February 8-13, 1998    American Academy of Forensic Science
March 6, 1998             Date Rape Drugs Update
June 8, 9, 1998            Sexual Assault Team Training
August 3-8, 1998         Sexual Assault Team Training 9th Annual Conference
October 1-5, 1998        IAFN Conference 6th Annual Assembly
December 3, 1998       Domestic Violence for SART nurses
January 25, 1999         Medical Evaluation of the Sexually Abused Child Responding to Child Maltreatment
February 14-18, 1999   American Academy of Forensic Service
June 3-4, 1999             Hall of Justice, Sexual Assault Training
July 12, 1999              Forensic Photography and Medical Evaluation of the Child
July 13-17, 1999         Sexual Assault Team Training 10th Annual Conference
August 5-9, 1999        7th Scientific Assembly IAFN
January 24-29, 2000    Responding to Child Maltreatment
February 21-26, 2000  American Academy of Forensic Science
March 11-12, 2000      IAFN First Clinical Update Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
June 24, 2000             Domestic Violence, Evidence Collection & Prosecution
September 23, 2000    Unfounded Allegations of Sexual Assault
October 13-16, 2000    IAFN 8th Scientific Assembly
January 22-26, 2001    San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment
March 14-15, 2001     Child Abuse Training
May 26-27, 2001        1st National SART Training Conference
August 28-29, 2001     Forensic Clinical Nursing Update 2001
September 8, 2001      An Inside look at American Indians and Intervention in their worlds.
Sept. 26-Oct. 1, 2001    International Forensic Nursing Conference.
March 9, 2002             Civil Recourse for Sexual Assault Victims
March 12-16, 2002      International Conference on Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking
July 20, 2002              Advance Practice for Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner
October 9, 2002           Forensic Photography
October 10-13, 2002    International Forensic Nursing Conference
November 4, 2002       Infection control aspects associated with the use of humidified air in NICU
November 11, 2002    Management Intensive Nursing Leadership Academy
January 6, 2003         Nursing Leadership Customizing the Job
February 18, 2003     Refresher training from the Crime Lab
March, 2003              Managing in a Union Environment
March 6, 2003           PAL’s recertification
April 7-8, 2003          DNA from Crime Scene to Courtroom
April 23-25, 2003       International Conference on Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Stalking
May 2, 2003              Setting Goals & Motivating Staff
May 22-24, 2003       SART Training
June 18-20, 2003       Forensic Focus Conference
May 3-5, 2004           National Children’s Alliance Conference
August 4, 2004          JCAHO Survey Prep Class
September 8, 2004    Trafficking and Slavery
October 20-24, 2004    IAFN Conference
October 26-27, 2004    Making a Difference Conference
June, 2006                 SART/SANE Conference
October, 2005            IAFN Conference
February, 2006           Campus Sexual Assault/CALCASA
March, 2006              Elder Abuse
April, 2006                CSAIA Conference
July 12, 13, 2006       Forensic Response to Missing Abducted Children
Sept. 26-29, 2006      IAFN National Meeting
Oct. 24-27, 2006       CSAIA Fall Training
April 26-28, 2007      AALNC, Annual meeting
May 28th-31st, 2007  SART/SANE Conference
Oct. 17-20th, 2007    IAFN Conference
Sept. 13, 2008           Child Abuse 101
Sept. 17-20, 2008      IAFN National Conference
Jan. 26th, 2009         APSAC annual meeting, Shaken baby’s and head trauma
Feb.  18-20, 2009     AAFS Annual Meeting
See CEU certificates on file