Corrosion Coated Steel Sheet Galvalume Galvanized Galfan Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Corrosion, Steel Corrosion, Atmospheric Corrosion, Automotive Corrosion, Corrosion Tests, Coated Steel Sheet, Galvalume, Galvanized, Galfan, Galvanneal, Bridges, Weathering Steel, Rust, CorTen, Mayari R, Duracorr

Expert Witness No.1965



1963, BS in Metallurgical Engineering Drexel University, Sigma Alpha Mu Honor Society Senior Thesis: Atmospheric Corrosion Fatigue – A literature survey leading to the conclusion that laboratory fatigue tests are actually corrosion-fatigue tests, unless they are conducted in a vacuum

1967, PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania Thesis: A Study of Molten Salt Mixtures by EMF Techniques – The first measurements ever reported of electrochemical potentials in molten salt mixtures due to gravity and pressure differences, and an analysis of their relationship to transport properties by use of non-equilibrium thermodynamics


1984 – Bethlehem Steel – D. J. Blickwede Research Award for outstanding technical excellence, originality, and creativity 

1990 and 1997 – Society of Automotive Engineers – Excellence in Oral Presentation from the Society of Automotive Engineers

1996 – Bethlehem Steel – Corporate Achievement Award

1998 – InterZAC – Recognition Award for pioneering studies of the metallurgy and corrosion resistance of Galvalume

1999 – NACE International – F. N. Speller Award for significant contributions to corrosion engineering 


Bethlehem Steel Corporation
1967-1972, Research Engineer, Corrosion Group, Project engineer for stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement studies of steel pipeline, plate, wire, and fasteners
1973-1983, Supervisor, Corrosion Group, Group leader for corrosion testing and development of corrosion-resistant steel products
1984-1985 Manager, Chemical Sciences Division, Responsible for research division with groups working on corrosion, coated product development, environmental control technology, and analytical chemistry.
1986-1991, Senior Research Fellow, Technical resource for corrosion testing and development of corrosion-resistant steel products, and worldwide monitoring of new coating technologies.
1992-2001, Senior Research Consultant, Technical resource for corrosion testing and development of corrosion-resistant steel products, and corporate representative on corrosion-related technical committees and professional organizations.
Townsend Corrosion Consultants, Inc.
2001-present President, Technical consulting and expert witness specializing in low-alloy and coated steel products for the automotive and construction industries.


A major career achievement was to lead a research group in developing the relationships between production variables, composition, microstructure, and corrosion resistance of Galvalume sheet (steel sheet with a 55% Al-Zn alloy coating).  This work formed a technical basis that was critical for commercial development of a product which provides significantly improved corrosion resistance over conventional galvanized sheet.
As part of this effort, long term atmospheric corrosion tests were conducted and reported over a period of 30 years in support of the anti-corrosion warranty for the product.  This warranty, offered initially for 20 years, was recently been increased to 30 years on the basis of this testing.
Launched as a new product in 1972, Galvalume use has grown steadily with worldwide production now exceeding 3 million tons per year (roughly $2 billion per year) for use in applications requiring enhanced corrosion resistance such as pre-engineered metal buildings, appliances, and school buses. 

Other significant accomplishments are described in 84 publications and 19 US patents. Highlights are summarized below.  (See publications for reference numbers).
1970 – Constructed the first Pourbaix (potential-pH) diagrams at elevated temperatures by use of the Criss-Cobble correspondence principal.  This approach correctly predicted the high-temperature thermodynamics of iron, and subsequently was widely adopted for use with other metals. (References 8 and 9)

1975 – Published the results of stress corrosion cracking testing of zinc-coated high-strength steel, including a unique fracture-mechanics analysis.   This analysis formed the technical basis of ASTM A490 specifications limiting the hardness of bare and galvanized high-strength bolts to avoid hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking. (Reference 11)

1978 – Published the first of a series of papers documenting the outdoor atmospheric corrosion performance of 55% Al-Zn alloy-coated steel sheet. (Reference 12)  The most recent of this series (1995-6) gave results after 30 years. (Reference 64)  As noted above, these papers provided a firm technical basis for corrosion warranties on Galvalume.

1983 – Discovered that liquid metal embrittlement of zinc-coated steel is inhibited by adding 0.04% or more of phosphorus to the steel. (Reference 25) This development allows the use of 55%Al-Zn alloy-coated sheet for high-temperature applications such as automobile exhaust.

1983 – Discovered that localized dielectric breakdown (sparking) is the mechanism responsible for cratering of cationic electrophoretic primer. (Reference 30) This discovery led to voltage-control methods now used to avoid pinhole defects in automobile primers. 

1985 – Discovered that zinc-rich organic coatings can be made galvanically active by corona discharge treatment. (References 34 and 35) This discovery made it possible to impart sacrificial properties to the Zincrometal barrier coating.

1988 – Published the first of a series of papers documenting a long-term program leading to development of a new standard laboratory corrosion test by the North American automobile and steel producers. (Reference 44)  Provided technical leadership for work culminating with the publication in 1996 of SAE J2334, a new cyclic corrosion test that is becoming widely accepted as the most reliable method for predicting the corrosion behavior of automobile body panels. (Reference 74)  Development of an improved and accepted standard test greatly facilitates the development and implementation of new and improved materials and methods of corrosion protection for vehicles.

1990 – Developed a novel method to prevent zinc deposits and provide anodic protection to stainless steel conductor rolls on a continuous electrogalvanizing line. (Reference 51) This development extends the life of conductor rolls and reduces the costs of electrogalvanizing.

1996 – Published the results of a joint study with Japanese researchers to determine the composition and structure of rust layers formed on weathering steels exposed for long times to the atmospheres of Japan and the US. (Reference 66)  This work utilized an array of analytical methods including microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy to advance our understanding of protective rust layers.

1999 – Published an analysis based on the Club of Rome model that demonstrates the impact of advances in corrosion resistance on the sustainability of the world’s economic growth. (Reference 77)  This analysis shows that application of corrosion control technology and development of corrosion-resistant materials, such as Galvalume and weathering steels, can have a major contribution to continued development of the world’s economy.

2002 – Created a new method for estimating the relative atmospheric corrosion resistance of alloy steel from chemical composition. (Reference 81) This method was added to ASTM G101, and a convenient calculator has been placed on the ASTM G1 website to facilitate its application for comparing the corrosion resistance of various steels.

Professional and Technical Activities

1967 NACE International: member, 1987-1989 Chairman of Unit Committee T14A on Automotive Corrosion, 1998 Vice-Chairman, T-3R Atmospheric Corrosion Symposium

1978-2001, American Society for Testing and Materials: member G01.01 Atmospheric Corrosion Committee, 2001Task Group Chairman for the development of laboratory corrosion test methods for steel framing.  Chairman of the Symposium on Outdoor and Indoor Corrosion (2001), Editor of STP 1421(2002).

Society of Automotive Engineers: member of Division 32 Task Group for the development of SAE J1293, an underbody corrosion test for automotive coated steel sheet (1978-1982). 

American Iron and Steel Institute and the Auto/Steel Partnership: Chairman (1992-1996) and Co-Chairman (1997-2001) of the Corrosion Task Force for the development of SAE J 2334, an improved laboratory corrosion test for automotive sheet steel; Chairman of the Corrosion Advisory Group for the development of high performance bridge steel (2000-2001).
American Society for Metals: Chairman of the Joint Commission on Metallurgical Transactions (1985-1986); Chairman of the Corrosion Protection Section of the Metals Handbook Volume on Corrosion (1986-1987). 
Licensed Professional Engineer (PA No. PE-043885-E).

Adjunct Professor, Old Dominion University (1993-2001).


Available upon request


Available upon request


Available upon request