Forensic Ballistics Expert Witness

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Forensic Ballistics Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Firearms, Forensic Ballistician, Microscopy, Toolmarks, Crime Scenes, Shooting Investigations, Ballistics, Trajectory, Police Use Of Lethal Force, Gunshot Distance Determination, Normal Improvised Test Firings, Firearms Cartridge Cases, Gunshot Wounds, Trajectory, Impression Marks, Fractures, Prison Made Improvised Firearms, Tools Burglarious Instruments, Moneybag Seals, Parking Meter Seals, Gunshot Distance Determination Tests, Pattern Tests, Court Ordered Destruction Orders, Special Weapons Testing Training With MA STOP Team, Airborne Firing, Prison Made Firearms, Altered Modified Firearms, Rifles, Handguns, Shotguns, Single Shot, Semi Automatic, Full Automatic, Military Armaments, Firearms Forensic Ballistician Fatal, Non Fatal Shootings, Voluntary Involuntary Shootings, Accidental Shootings, Firearms Neglect, Firearms Malicious Destruction, Drive By Shootings, Police Officer Involved Shootings, Firearms Forensic Ballistician Suicide, Firearms Forensic Ballistician Homicide, Armorer, Firearms Manufacturing Process, SWAT,

The investigator lacks forensic expertise, the crime scene technicians lacks investigative skills; typically much later a crime lab examiner removes evidence from a property room with minimal knowledge, if any, of the details or alleged version of events.
Tangible and intangible evidence which should have been present at the scene is not considered; critical evidence gets overlooked or fails to be collected or documented.
Result: the investigator, crime scene, and forensics fail to work in unison resulting in a flawed investigation abundant with omissions which can be intentional or unintentional.
Attorneys/prosecutors do not realize the discrepancies which exist and are at a disadvantage in presenting their case.

I am privileged to be one of a handful of persons with combined experience in both forensic and criminal investigations with hands-on involvement in literally thousands of shooting incidents from septuple homicides to defective design of firearms including catastrophic failures.

Currently I am one of 24 forensic experts selected nationwide to be a member of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Consensus Board on Firearms and Toolmarks which is responsible for developing the standards and methodologies to be employed in these areas as required by the Congressional Act which mandates the overhaul of all forensic science disciplines.

Sub-specialize in police shootings and have investigated over 400 officer involved shooting incidents. I was a member of the State Police Firearms Review Board, have conducted internal department shooting investigations.

I have been the Commanding Officer of the MSP Firearms Section, the Troop Shift Commander of 6 barracks, a Staff Inspector, Commander of an urban Boston area State Police Barracks, and Shift Commander of the state-wide Operations Section, and commanded the shift operations of multiple barracks at the troop level.

Military service in the Army Ordnance Corps testing and researching; total experience is almost 55 years in firearms & ballistics; and over 35 years in forensic areas; I have testified approximately 350 times at all levels of the civilian and military courts.

Formal Education:
Curriculum Vitae

1991 – Master of Science in Management, Lesley College, Cambridge, MA.
1982 – Master of Business Administration, 1 year of study in Macroeconomics, Analysis and Policy, Salem State College, Salem, MA.
1981 – Master of Arts in Criminal Justice, Anna Maria College, Paxton, MA.
1980 – Bachelor of Science Cum Laude, Law Enforcement, Northeastern University, Boston, MA.
1979 – Graduate Study Criminal Justice, American International College, Springfield, MA.
1978 – Associate in Science Criminal Justice, North Shore Community College, Beverly, MA.
1967 – 1969 Accounting & Finance, Bentley College, Waltham, MA. and Bryant & Stratton.

Ancillary Education:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “For the Love of Physics”, Professor Walter Lewin.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “Introduction to Kinematics”, Professor Walter Lewin.
Yale University Lecture Series, Fundamentals of Physics, “Vectors in Multiple Dimensions”, Professor Ramamurti Shankar.
Attendance at presentations and lectures.

Informal, Technical, Forensic Education/Training:

2021 – Intact Low Explosives Analysis (Microscopical Analysis Methods) – National Inst of Justice.
2019 – Smith & Wesson Model MP-15 5.56mm NATO/.223 Remington, Raymond NH.
2019 – Cody Firearms Museum and Archives, Cody, WY.
2018 – Sig-Sauer P230, P232 and Springfield Armory M1A1 familiarization firing, Moultonborough, NH. Law enforcement firearms and and silencing devices for tactical use.
2018 – Glock G26 and G42 familiarization firing, Phoenix, AZ.
2018 – Class 2 and Class 3 Vendors Exhibition, Phoenix, AZ. (Silencers, muzzle devices, full auto firearms, new holster security level designs)
2016 – Class 2 and Class 3 Vendors Exhibition, Phoenix, AZ. (New developments in ballistic protection devices, full auto handgun exhibition, newly designed tactical gear and equipment)
2013 – Class 2 and Class 3 Vendors Exhibition, Phoenix, AZ.
2012 – U.S. Department of Justice, NIJ “Forensic Photography”.
2012 – U.S. Department of Justice, NIJ “Principles & Thought Processes of Crime Scene Investigation”.
2012 – U.S. Department of Justice, NIJ “Answering the NAS: The Ethics of Leadership and the Leadership of Ethics”.
Invited Study Participant “An Empirical Study to Evaluate the Repeatability and Uniqueness of Striations/Impressions Imparted on Consecutively Manufactured Glock EBIS Gun Barrels”, AFTE Journal, Volume 43, Number 1, Winter 2011, pp. 37-44.
2010 – SAR NFA Class 3 Manufacturer’s Exhibition, Phoenix, AZ.
2006 – Trajectory Plotting Using Lasers and Capture with Digital Cameras. International Association for Identification, July 2-7, 2006, Boston, MA.
1993 – Total Quality Management Program – MSP Academy, New Braintree, MA.
1991 – Contemporary Liability Issues for Modern Police Agencies, Springfield, MA.
1991 – Smith & Wesson Academy, Contemporary Firearms Issues, Springfield, MA.
1981 – MIT Leadership Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Business, Cambridge, MA.
1981 – Forensic Examination (Medico-Legal) of Violent Death, Babson College, Wellesley, MA.
1980 – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, & Firearms, National Firearms Academy, Firearms Examiner and Shooting Reconstruction Course, Boston, MA.
1973 – Massachusetts State Police School of Handguns, Achievement Grade “Master”.
1973 – Graduate of the Massachusetts State Police Academy (17 weeks curriculum)
1969 – 1970 Mechanical Engineering in HVAC, Raisler Corp., Boston, MA.
1966 – 1969 Mechanical Engineering Apprentice Program and machinist , GE, Lynn, MA.
Continuing study in Newtonian Mechanics.
1963 – 1966 Ordnance specialist in research, testing, repair, and maintenance U.S. Army including Explosive Ordnance Reconnaissance certification.

Military – U.S. Army (1963-1966):

Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) 45B
Performed DS/GS maintenance on small arms and other infantry weapons, and towed artillery; provided technical guidance to the soldiers in the accomplishment of their duties; diagnoses and troubleshoots malfunctions of small arms and other infantry weapons, and towed artillery; performs small arms/artillery repairer (MOS 45B) duties, performs fire control repairer (MOS 45G) duties; inspects and troubleshoots fire control system components, towed artillery fire control systems, self- propelled artillery fire control systems, tank fire control systems, towed artillery armament systems, self-propelled artillery armament systems, fighting vehicle armament systems, tank armament systems, small arms weapons; classifies equipment.
Fort Gordon, GA Basic Training and Advanced Infantry Training (M14, M1911, M1)
Fort Benning, GA – Paratrooper School.
Fort Dix, NJ – Explosive Ordnance Reconnaissance School.
Fort Dix, NJ, US Army Ordnance School (Explosive Ordnance Disposal).
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD US Army Small Arms Repair School (5 weeks).
Aberdeen Proving Ground: ammunition, trajectory, chamber pressure testing; prototypes including the Stoner M63 Light Machine Gun.
U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit, 7th Army, USAREUR.
Small Arms Maintenance Unit Armorers Course, Vilseck, Germany.
Combat Lifesaver Course.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Defense Course.
Small Arms Trainer Course.
USSW .50 Caliber Training Course.
Ammunition Handlers Certification Course (AHC).
2 ½ years with 40th Ordnance Co. researching development of Eastern Bloc weapons.
Company armorer M79 Grenade Launcher, .50 Cal MG, .45 ACP, M14 and M14A1 Rifles, Thompson .45 ACP.
7th Army Combined Arms School (2 months in residence training), Vilseck, Germany.
Crew chief .50 caliber M2 Browning HB Machine Gun.
Military Occupation Specialty 45B with depot level repair qualification.
1965 – Operation “Power Pack” Dominican Republic.

Ballistics & Weapons Training/Experience 1963 –present:

Massachusetts State Police Firearms Section (1979-1992) – Commanding Officer.
Massachusetts State Police Shooting Review Board for Officer Involved Shootings.
Massachusetts State Police – STOP Team weapons training and evaluation including full automatic, grenade launchers, tear gas, incendiaries, airborne platform firearms, non-lethal firearms and ammunition.
Massachusetts State Police – Transitional evaluation & testing of semi-automatic pistols.
MSP Academy & Department Firearms Training (over 400 hours).
US Army Natick Research Lab – Ballistic Materials Research and Testing of military protective equipment.
US Army Watertown Arsenal, United States Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center.
Ft. Devens Special Warfare Weapons Center – 10th Special Forces Group.
Association of Firearms and Toolmark Examiners.
Federal Firearms Manufacturer of custom .45 ACP M1911 Pistols and Colt (Ranger) AR-15 Semi-automatic and automatic rifles.
IHMSA – Professional Shooting Competition and Firearms Development.
Ammunition reloading and propellant burn rates.
Camp Curtis Guild – National Guard Training Facility (Military weapons).
Camp Edwards – National Guard Training Facility (Military ordnance & firearms).
U.S. Dept of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms National Academy for Firearms Investigations and Examiners.
MA Criminal Justice Training Council seminars and workshops on medico-legal investigations.
Continuing research through readings, casework, attendance at scientific meetings.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Triangle Tool and Die, Lynn, MA. – subcontract manufacturing of firearms parts.
Periodic attendance at forensic presentations and lectures.

Armorer Courses:

Armorer courses and/or actual familiarization with manufacturing, design, function at factories for:

Sturm Ruger
Smith & Wesson
Thompson Center Arms
Dan Wesson
Iver Johnson
Savage Arms
Gunsmithing (Brochu Custom Cartridge)

* Indicates the extended law enforcement armorer course.
** Military M60 MG and hammer forging of tank and artillery barrels.

Voting Member of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Standards Consensus Board on Firearms and Tool Marks:

The Firearms and Toolmarks Consensus Body focuses on standards and guidelines related to the examination of firearms and toolmark evidence. This includes the comparison of microscopic toolmarks on projectiles, cartridge cases, and other ammunition components firearm function testing, serial number restoration, muzzle-to-object distance determination, gunshot residue, trajectory and bullet path analysis, etc.

The Consensus Board is responsible for creating and approving by consensus Forensic Standards, Technical Reports, and Best Practice Recommendations for the forensic science community and conformance with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

Innocence Projects:
Medill Innocence Project (Northwestern University School of Law).
Arizona Innocence Project (Northern Arizona University).
Downstate Illinois Innocence Project (University of Illinois, Springfield).
Wisconsin (University of Wisconsin Law School).
California Innocence Project (CA Western School of Law).

Expert Testimony or Significant Casework Venues:


Afghanistan Canada United Kingdom
Iraq Israel U.S. Virgin Islands
Nigeria Philippines Pakistan
Haiti Colombia

National: All 50 states.


Police shootings • Shooting reconstruction
Crime scenes • Daubert/Frye
Tool mark microscopy • Shooting dynamics
Reaction time • Firearms safety
Gunshot wounds • Theory of Identification
Distance determination testing • Drag model analysis
Chamber pressure • Hunting protocol
Defective design • Time – Speed – Distance
Catastrophic failures • Kinetic energy calculations

Gyroscopic stability • Macro measuring digital/mechanical instrumentation
Photomicrographs • Training
Bullet Drop – Path – Lead • SmartDraw and/or PowerPoint
Wind deflection and diagramming • Modified, improvised, full-auto conversions
Discharged cartridge case patterns • Gunshot distance determination testing
Departmental review evaluation • Angle of incidence
Prison made firearms • Velocity testing

Police Shootings:

Since 1979 I have been involved in the forensic, criminal, or internal investigation of approximately 450 police shootings where the officer either discharged his firearm or was fired upon.

Gunshot Wound Ballistics:

Trained extensively with Drs. George Katsas (Chief Medical Examiner of Suffolk County and Forensic Pathologist at the Southern Mortuary) and Albert Shub (Medical Examiner of Essex County), attended numerous presentations by Drs. Vincent DiMaio, Martin Fackler, and George Katsas.

Made forensic presentations at medical symposiums in MA and NH.

Conducted, supervised, reviewed, or assisted at hundreds of fatal/non-fatal gunshot incidents including wound ballistics interpretation prior to the institution of the modern Medical Examiner system.

Have attended approximately 700 post mortems involving gunshot wounds and trauma.

Lectures and Presentations:

Harvard University Massachusetts State Police Academy
Northeastern University Municipal Police Academy
Boston University MDC Police Academy
District Attorney Seminars/Conferences Metro Boston Emergency Medical System American Academy of Forensic Sciences Sportsman’s Clubs (Firearms & Hunter Safety) Arizona State University (Phoenix-Glendale)

Other Experience:

Extensive reloading knowledge • Built/customized numerous firearms
Professional shooting awards • Chamber pressure trace testing
Barrel performance • Long-range trajectory testing
Ammunition penetration tests • Improvised firearms
Collector & Federal Firearms Dealer • Destructive testing
Mil-Spec Testing • Silencers and improvised devices
Less than lethal ammunition • U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit

Oral presentations only.


1973: Massachusetts State Police Academy Graduate: 17 Weeks in residence police training course with approximately 80 hours of dedicated firearms and tactical shooting.

1973 – 1979 Field Operations: Criminal/Traffic Investigations, Logan Airport Delta Airlines crash, Boston Busing enforcement, State Prison riots, state forest and game preserves, Salisbury Beach Detail. Senior Trooper on 6-Officer Selective Enforcement “55 Team”; commercial vehicle enforcement, Presidential security, Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, sporting events, crisis response, major traffic incidents, local police assistance, Executive Security, criminal investigations, crime scenes, and special assignments.

1979 – 1992: Firearms Section: Commanding Officer of two labs, trained 5 additional firearms experts. Conducted forensic investigations statewide and out-of-state. Combined labs averaged 1500- 1700 cases annually for fatal, non-fatal, accidental, defective design, malfunctions, voluntary/involuntary, toolmark microscopy, gunshot distance determination, trajectory, crime scenes, autopsies, wound interpretation, shooting reconstruction, firearms safety, ballistics, improvised and prison made firearms, modified and altered full auto, catastrophic failures, pen guns, police procedures. Conducted agency transitional firearms evaluation testing 1987-88. Member of Firearms Review Board. Shooting investigations and reconstruction of incidents involving organized crime, bank and armored vehicle robberies, officer involved shooting incidents, hunting incidents.

1992: Shift Commander “GHQ”: General Headquarters Operations Section. Supervised statewide troop operations, 911 system, communications system, special investigations, consolidation of police forces, authorized and coordinated the use and response of department services to State Police entities, local cities and towns.

1992 – 1995: Shift Commander Troop “H”: Supervised 4 barracks (approximately 150 officers) covering metropolitan Boston. Special advisor on the Consolidation of Police Forces. Training Coordinator for new Officers; department internal investigations, commanded special details.

1995: Shift Commander Troop “A”. Supervised 6 barracks (approximately 250 officers) responsible for the northeast quadrant of Massachusetts. Training Coordinator for new Officers; department internal investigations, commanded special details.

1995 – 1997: Commanding Officer-Revere Barracks: Responsible for 65-officer municipal oriented policing operation covering cities of Lynn, Nahant, Chelsea, E. Boston, Winthrop, and Revere. Gang activities. Specialized units included motorcycles, off-road and beach patrols, K-9, Mounted Unit. Primary jurisdiction on state and MDC beaches, parks, roads and waterways.

1997: Shift Commander Troop “A”. Supervised 6 barracks responsible for northeast quadrant of Massachusetts. Training Coordinator for new Officers, department internal investigations, commanded special details (sporting events, etc.).

1997-1998: Staff Inspector: Conducted investigations involving ethics, misconduct, use of force, shooting investigations, audits of drugs, cash, evidence, contraband, security and special investigations. Unannounced inspections of personnel and equipment. Evaluated the operational readiness of department units. Reported directly to Superintendent/Colonel of State Police.

1973-1998: Annual In-Service: Various annual certifications and non-certification areas; CPR recertification, law updates, firearms training and qualification, pursuit and high speed driving, skid pan, physical agility, policy and procedure, rules and regulations, ethics, tactical operations, etc.

Professional Employment 1967-1973:

Mechanical Engineering Apprentice Program, General Electric, Lynn, MA. Jet engine fabrication, assembly, and inspection; alternating classroom and practical application utilizing vertical and horizontal milling machines, turret lathes, boring mills, drill press, rotary, Bridgeports, Milwaukee Maddock, etc.

Mechanical Engineering (on-site) apprenticeship for Raisler-Lappin Corp., A Joint Venture, at the New England Merchants National Bank 37-story office tower building, Boston, MA. Engineering design and blueprinting for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, plumbing, and sheet metal.
Triangle Tool & Die Company, Lynn, MA. Subcontract manufacturer for General Electric Co and major firearms manufacturers. Produced jet engine parts, firearms springs, ejectors, firing pins, drift pins, and miscellaneous small internal parts.

Senior accountant and auditor, O.C. Moyer & Co, Certified Public Accountants, Boston, MA. Medium sized local public accounting firm providing financial services to professional athletes, corporations, and non-profit entities.

Senior auditor and accountant at B&L Management Co., Somerville, MA. Firm specialized in capital venture, investment, development, and management of land, nursing homes, management companies in New England.

Professional Organizations and Societies:

American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS).
AAFS Academy Standards Board – Member, Consensus Board for Firearms & Toolmarks.
International Association for Identification (IAI).
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP).
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
On-Call Scientists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Association of Firearms and Toolmark Examiners (AFTE) – (Former member.)
American Society of Criminology (ASC). (Former member.)
NRA – Life Member.
Sigma Epsilon Rho Honor Society.
Voting Member, American Academy of Forensic Sciences Standards Board, Consensus Board for Firearms and Tool Mark Examinations.

Qualifications Statement Addendum to CV

I am a 25-year plus retired Commissioned Officer of the Massachusetts State Police with over half my career in the MSP Ballistics Section and was the Commanding Officer of the main and sub-labs with 7 forensic examiners; I conducted, supervised, and trained personnel in forensic investigations, shooting reconstruction, and the dynamics involved in shooting incidences. I have also conducted criminal investigations related to shooting incidences and other crimes.

The firearms lab provided crime scene investigation and forensic examination services to 350 cities and towns, all State agencies, Federal agencies except the FBI, and the military services in Massachusetts. I was an appointed member of the MSP Firearms Review Board which evaluated departmental officer involved shooting incidences and made recommendations for discipline, training, and/or changes and improvements to Department Policy and Procedure and Department Rules & Regulations.

As a member of the Staff Inspections Unit, I conducted agency shooting investigations, claims of excessive force and/or police misconduct, and violations of Policy & Procedure and Rules & Regulations. During 1987-88 I conducted evaluation testing of multiple models and makes for semi- automatic firearms using methodology similar to that employed by the military weapons testing.

I have investigated over 400 police involved shootings including incidents of fatal and nonfatal shootings, friendly fire injuries and deaths, involuntary or unintentional discharges, appropriate and inappropriate use of deadly force with firearms, less-than-lethal and non-lethal ammunition shootings, conducted electrical weapons, firearms of single shot, semi-automatic, and full automatic design; this includes revolvers, pistols, rifles, machine guns, grenade launchers, shotguns.

I have personally conducted thousands of forensic investigations, including crime scenes, attended approximately 700 post-mortems, and was trained in the forensic interpretation of gunshot wounds from a shooting reconstruction perspective (particularly, with respect to the relative positions of the shooter or firearm and the victim) by Chief Medical Examiner of Suffolk County, Dr. George Katsas and Dr. Albert Shub of Essex County. I have also attended numerous gunshot wound presentations and read the treatises on gunshot wound evidence authored by prominent forensic pathologists.

In addition, I have trained with or studied treatises published by other prominent forensic pathologists since 1979 in gunshot wounds and terminal ballistics. I have personally observed fatal and non-fatal gunshot wounds as they have occurred in my presence. I have attended the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms National Firearms Academy Investigation course, FBI courses, state law enforcement courses, medico-legal death seminars, thousands of hours of in-service training at the State Police Academy, numerous crime scene shooting reconstruction courses, forensic seminars, etc.

In the aggregate, I estimate having been personally involved in about 5000 shooting investigation cases dating back to 1973. Of that total approximately 1000 were fatal shootings with the remainder consisting of non-fatal, property damage, bank and armored car robberies, domestic violence, malicious destruction, inadvertent and unintentional discharges, hunting and firing range incidents, self-inflicted wounds, drive-by shootings, self-defense, negligent and unsafe firearms safety discharges, military and combat injuries from gunshots, organized crime, terrorist activities, friendly fire, spontaneous disassembly and catastrophic firearms and ammunition failures, homemade and prison made firearms and silencers, international assassination attempts resulting in gunshot injury, shooting incidents in international waters and other types of shooting investigations and reconstruction.

During my experience and training I have utilized and analyzed several hundred video and audio recordings of shooting incidents to reach scientific conclusions, including the existence and use of a firearm, the rate of fire, muzzle flash, type of firearm in the video, time, speed, and motion over distance using slow-motion and frame-by-frame sequencing. These video and audio recordings have included private monitoring systems, surveillance systems, police observation units, police in-car dash camera video, on-body camera and audio devices, Go-Pro camera digital video, civilian recordings on cell phones and digital cameras, and video and/or audio recording evidence provided by the news media or other sources.

As an expert witness I have testified over 350 times in all areas of firearms, ballistics, shooting reconstruction, and shooting dynamics at all levels of the court system including Federal Court and Military Hearings. Testimony also has been given before the Massachusetts Legislature and consultation provided to Massachusetts Congressmen to assist with legislative issues.

My U.S. Army active duty career was within the Ordnance Corps and included extensive training and assignment in the testing, evaluation, repair and research of small arms and training in Explosive Ordnance Reconnaissance. I attended the U.S. Army Ordnance School at Ft. Dix and Small Arms Repair School, at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD and spent most of my military career researching and testing Eastern Bloc weapons systems during the mid-1960’s while assigned to an Ordnance Company in Germany where I was the Company Armorer and Crew Chief of the Headquarters Weapons Platoon responsible for the training and operating of .45 Auto Model 1911 Pistols, M14 Rifles, M14A1 Full Automatic Rifles, Browning M2 HB crew served machine gun, M79 Grenade Launcher, AR-15 Assault Rifles, M16 Full Auto Assault Machine Rifles, M72 LAW Rocket, M20 Super Bazooka, and various types of explosive ordnance (grenades, claymore mines,etc).

I was qualified to perform the highest level of repairs to the M2 and most small arms and machine guns. I was qualified as both a “Direct Support” level technician and a “General Support Level” technician and armorer. At the unit level I was the Armorer for the 40th Ordnance Company located at Neureut Kaserne in Karlsruhe, Germany.

I have trained with the MSP Special Tactical Operations (STOP) team, been involved in shooting incident reconstruction from airborne platforms including police and military helicopters, and with the 10th Special Forces Group at Fort Devens, MA for special weapons and tactics.

My weapons proficiency includes significant professional competition championships including World International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Championship 1980 winner, being the first Massachusetts State Police Officer to fire a perfect combat course score with a revolver; I hold a proficiency rating of Master Shooter and was a firearms instructor for several decades, and have had both a Federal and State Firearms License for full automatic firearms; I am currently a Federally Licensed Firearms Dealer and have taught Firearms and Hunter Safety Courses.

In 2002 I became an independent forensic consultant and provide services including firearms, ballistics, shooting reconstruction, ballistic testing, gyroscopic stability; internal, external, and terminal ballistics; reaction time, analysis of time and motion in a shooting incident, trajectory and drag model analysis and other specialized services. I have been retained by the U.S. Military, engineers, insurance companies, attorneys, prosecutors, authors, architects, Innocence Projects, and conducted work for both plaintiffs and defendants in civil litigation matters.

Since 2002 I have been involved in over 600 investigations requiring shooting reconstruction and/or forensic investigation in every state, and in Haiti, Virgin Islands, United Kingdom, Israel, Afghanistan, Iraq, Canada, Nigeria, the Philippines, Colombia, and Pakistan.

My forensic training, education, and experience are over 35 years, and my overall experience with firearms, ballistics, etc., exceeds 57 years. I have testified on numerous occasions regarding discharged cartridge case ejection and received advanced training and have personally conducted hundreds of generally accepted tests for determining discharged cartridge case ejection patterns, including actual testing of semi-automatic pistols, full automatic pistols, and machine guns and submachine guns, as well as studied literature on ejection pattern testing protocols published in the Journal of the Association of Firearms and Tool Mark Examiners, the Journal of Forensic Science published by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, the FBI Bulletin, during factory Armorer Courses, Investigative Science Journal, and numerous books on shooting reconstruction including those by Dr. Vincent J. M. DiMaio, Edward Hueske and Lucien Haag, the Indiana Professional Engineer Magazine, blood splatter analysis, gunshot distance, wound ballistics, angles of gunshot impact, and the elements of time, motion, and distance in shooting incidents including reaction time for various shooting motions, rate of fire, holster retention levels, gunshots occurring during struggle over a firearm, and other issues.

I voluntarily submit to proficiency testing with the Collaborative Testing Service and I am one of approximately 20 voting members of the American Academy of Sciences Academy Standards Board (ASB) which is developing Best Practices, Technical Reports, and the national standards required by the Congressional Forensic Science Act in the area of firearms and tool mark examinations through the Consensus Board for Firearms and Tool Marks.

I have given peer-reviewed scientific forensic presentations at numerous colleges and universities, seminars for District Attorneys and private attorneys, emergency medical service responders, police academies, private investigator meetings, and at annual meetings of several professional organizations of which I am a member or former member.