Human Factors Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Human Factors, human factors engineering, automatic teller machine, usability, use errors, medical equipment errors, perception, vision, procedures, warnings, labels, individual differences, training, cognitive psychology, situational awareness, vehicle accidents, industrial construction accidents, slip, trip, fall, ergonomics, workplace layout, physics, optics, statistics, experimental design, simulation, mockups, experimental proof, reenactment, physics human factors psychology, perceptual processes, vehicle driving, human computer interaction, equipment design evaluation, induced errors, medical equipment errors, Experimental Research, System Product Design, Standards Development, Workplace Evaluation, environmental health safety documentation,plant layout, ergonomic analysis, plant support manuals, Standard Operating Procedures, work instructions, maintenance plans, User Manuals,

Educational Background

1961, B.A., Physics (Math minor), University at Buffalo

1962, Graduate Studies, Solid State Physics and Math, Purdue University (elected to Sigma Pi Sigma, Physics Honorary Society)

1963, M.S., Experimental Psychology (Physics minor), Purdue University

1965, S.M., Experimental Psychology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1967, Ph.D., Experimental Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo (Departmental Honors)

Registered Professional Engineer (California Certificate Number Available upon Request)

Experience Summary

Expert 2367 has conducted research and development programs in Instructional System Development (ISD), perceptual processes, vehicle driving, human-computer interaction, equipment design and evaluation, and physiological processes. He has authored over 60 papers and publications, numerous training programs, and five patent disclosures (one U.S. Patent awarded.)

Expert 2367’s projects include an evaluation of a system to prevent drunken driving, an investigation of factors contributing to decreased alertness during long duration, low event driving, studies of camouflage, and programs requiring the design of operator-computer and operator/maintainer-machine interfaces. He supervised seven ISD programs (as prime or subcontractor) for aircrew and maintainer (Air Force B-1 and NGT, Navy E-2B/C, F-4J/N, F/A-18, LAMPS Mk III, and VTXTS) and many other government and industrial training programs.

Expert 2367’s primary current work is the development of multimedia training programs for industrial operations, environmental health & safety, and maintenance for light to heavy industry. He also conducts classes on ergonomics for safety and ergonomics teams.

Expert 2367 has been responsible for programs requiring the design of operator-computer and operator maintainer-machine interfaces. He was selected by the international Human Factors and Ergonomics Society to participate in a program to develop a comprehensive human factors plan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Further information on this project is available upon request.

Expert 2367 provides expert testimony in criminal and civil trials (both defense and plaintiff) involving visual perception, warnings and labels, and industrial, vehicle, and other accidents for which he uses his unique combination of expertise in physics and human factors psychology.


1967 – 1982 Calspan (formerly Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory), 1978 – 1982, Director, Human Factors and Training Center

1969 – 2006 State University of New York at Buffalo, State University College at Buffalo, and Empire State College, D’Youville College: Part?time Lecturer/Instructor (psychology, ergonomics, industrial engineering., statistics)

1982 – Present Private Consulting Firm, Training Systems and Ergonomics Divisions

1997 – Present Private Consulting Firm, President

2003 – 2003 Parsons Brinckerhoff, Quality Control Manager

Other Professional Activities and Honors

Fellow, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Technical Groups: Forensics Professional (former chair), Training (former chair), Health Care.

International Ergonomics Association, Technical committee on Slips, Trips and Falls

American Psychological Association , member Division 21, Applied Experimental & Engineering Psych.

Western New York Chapter of the Human Factors Society, 1982 – 83, 1984 – 85 President

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, Human Engineering Committee

Reserve Deputy, Sheriff of Erie County, Scientific Reserve Division (retired)

Western NY Science Congress, Inc., Board of Directors

SUNY at Buffalo, Industry/University Center for Biosurfaces, Human Factors Coordinator

WNY Life Sciences Industries Association

Stavatti Corporation, Board of Directors, Director of Human Factors Engineering

Human Factors Engineering

Expert 2367 has over 40 years of experience in a variety of human factors engineering projects. He has been a participant or supervisor in applied research and development efforts for many commercial and military systems.

Nuclear Power Industry Review

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society to investigate the human factors problems in the nuclear power industry and develop a comprehensive long?range plan for research to improve the regulatory process. Expert 2367 was one of seven nationally recognized experts selected to conduct the study. All aspects of human factors were investigated by the study group: human engineering (design of control boards and displays), procedures and operator aids, personnel and staffing, and training and training devices. Although each participant studied all aspects, Expert 2367 had prime responsibility for the training and training devices data collection. Site visits were made to power plants in all stages of construction and operation, NPP vendors, training facilities, all relevant components of the NRC, National Laboratories, and INPO and EPRI (industry?sponsored organizations), as well as other contacts specific to each area.

The group began the project with an intensive indoctrination program, including a week of classroom and hands?on training at the Tennessee Valley Authority nuclear training facility. Subsequently, all relevant NRC and industry?sponsored program plans and literature were studied, which combined with the extensive interviews during the site visits, resulted in the development of the three?volume report NUREG/CR – 2833.

Human-Machine Interface Design

Expert 2367 was the human factors engineer for the design of a ground power generator and air conditioner to replace current Air Force flight line equipment. This project required the design of operators’ stations and maintenance procedures suitable for worldwide environmental conditions. For LTV Aerospace & Defense, Sierra Division he performed an operator panel and workload evaluation. Prior to that project, he supervised a team of human factors specialists for the design of the new Army XM-82 Automated Liquid Agent Detector system. The sponsor praised the ALAD as the best human-factored equipment designed for the chemical warfare inventory for deployment by low skill level soldiers. Another project resulted in recommendations for the user-computer interface for the Defense Intelligence Agency applications of the Safe database system. That system accommodates both novice and expert analysts. He was also a consultant for the development of video display terminal information displays for General Mills.

Expert 2367 was responsible for the development of a handbook to be used for the conduct of design reviews for new aircraft. The handbook was formatted in the style of Operational Sequence Diagrams so that the tasks and interrelationships for all team members were laid out chronologically. Critical milestones and events were easily noted. Behavioral and equipment oriented task analyses have been carried out by Expert 2367 using a wide variety of techniques, including the OSD and mission/function/task analyses for equipment design and the more elaborate design and the more elaborate training task analyses for Instructional Systems Development.

Perceptual Processes

Representative studies of perception conducted by Expert 2367 include a study of the effects of centrifuge accelerations on human brightness thresholds, analytic, laboratory and field investigations of aircraft visibility, an evaluation of the effects of blue-tinted lenses on visual acuity, a project in which simplified visual and olfactory tests were incorporated into a “kit” to be used by non-chemists for the detection of hazardous materials, and a series of experiments to determine factors which would improve identification of suspects by witnesses.

At the State University of New York at Buffalo, Expert 2367 worked on a study of visual adaptation in a uniform visual field. For his dissertation he was concerned with the perception of motion and visual localization in space. In addition to developing a new theoretical approach to these problems, Expert 2367 contributed supporting evidence for his theory through a series of studies that employed both pursuit and saccadic eye movements and used both real and illusory movement of the stimuli. While at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Expert 2367 conducted research in the area of visual adaptation and spatial orientation systems. Expert 2367’s research at Purdue University concerned the ability of humans to judge the position of blurred borders.

Vehicle Driving

Expert 2367 directed a project that measured variables related to the level of alertness of an automobile driver, including maintenance of speed and lane position, steering wheel inputs reaction time, EEG, and EKG during long distance, low event driving on a highway. That study was an on-road validation of factors that were found to be significant in an earlier simulator study of driver alertness. In another study, glare was used as a stressor to degrade performance during night driving. In a third full-scale study, some of the cues used by drivers in a skid condition were evaluated by controlling the information available to the drivers by means of auxiliary displays.

Expert 2367 directed a comprehensive evaluation and optimization of an ignition interlock device to prevent intoxicated individuals from starting their cars. In that study, subjects who had been given a large dose of alcohol were tested on the interlock device, on a driving simulator task, and on a battery of psychomotor and cognitive tasks while being periodically measured for blood alcohol concentration.

Other Product Development and Evaluation

Expert 2367 has been personally responsible for many industrial studies. Among them was an independent evaluation of competing micrographics equipment performed for the business products marketing group of the Eastman Kodak Company. Other studies to evaluate the operator interface of products included automated teller machines, voting machines, and hospital equipment.

Training and Training Devices

Expert 2367 has several decades of experience in the analysis and design of military and commercial training systems. His leadership in this area led to his selection as part of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society project for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review human factors aspects of the nuclear power industry. He was given prime responsibility for the review of training and training devices. Expert 2367 has been a training consultant to military and commercial organizations.

In the mid ’70s, Expert 2367 combined his academic experience in the psychology of learning and his research experience with human performance measurement in his capacity as Project Manager of the B-1 Aircrew Systems Approach to Training. This program involved a multidisciplinary team of approximately twenty scientists and engineers. Instructional System Development (ISD) methodologies and systems analysis techniques were adapted to the task of designing the instructional system for the crew of the future B-1 strategic bomber. Under Expert 2367’s direction, alternative training system components were determined complete with detail relating to syllabi, training media descriptions, schedules, time-phased costs, and requirements for facilities, personnel, and equipment. Among the features of this program were the specification of behavioral objectives, an investigation of the current and projected state-of-the-art in flight and systems simulation, and the development of a Training Resources Analytic Model which provided a complete time-phased analysis of training resource requirements, and served as a tool for sensitivity and trade-off analyses among system options.

Expert 2367 was also the supervisor for the development of the instructional system for the Navy E-2C aircraft crew.Unlike the B-1 program, the principles of ISD were applied to an aircraft in the operational inventory in the E-2C project. Media and lesson specifications were prepared, implemented, and validated during the second phase via revisions to an existing training curriculum for this early warning aircraft.

With the B-1 and E-2C programs as a foundation, Expert 2367 led further ISD efforts for the Marines F-4J fighter aircrew, Navy F-18 fighter/attack pilot, the maintainers and operators for the Navy SH-60B LAMPS Mk III helicopter (subcontract to IBM), the Douglas Aircraft Corporation development of the Navy VTXTS replacement jet training system, and the Gulfstream-American proposal for the Air Force Next Generation Trainer aircraft.

As a follow-on to the B-1 ISD program, Expert 2367 supervised a project for the Strategic Air Command which resulted in the development of procedures for simulator certification (SIMCERT) to be used to evaluate the training effectiveness of full and part-task simulators. He assisted the Singer-Link Flight Simulation Division in the development of a proposed design for the B-1B weapon system trainer. Expert 2367 was also responsible for the development of new techniques for early estimation of major training system resource requirements, training effectiveness evaluation techniques for Army Test and evaluation programs and an evaluation of personnel and training for Coast Guard Marine Safety Officers.

Other Projects

Since forming his own company in 1982, Expert 2367 has primarily been involved in creating hundreds of hours of training programs for industry, including heavy manufacturing, pharmaceutical, food manufacturing, high technology companies. Content has included operations, maintenance, quality, product and company familiarization, and environmental, health and safety. Delivery systems used cover the full range from standalone PCs to web-based training. In addition Expert 2367 built a full-scale maintenance trainer for the computerized rear door of an Orion Bus Industries passenger bus. The working model incorporated bus driver controls, electronic and hydraulic systems, and the interface for a wheelchair lift. The simulator was delivered to the New York City Transit Authority.

Currently, Expert 2367 is providing human factors expertise for the safety features and labeling of an integrated filtration/HVAC unit and portable isolation shelter marketed by Iso Air (formerly FailSafe Air Safety Systems, Tonawanda NY). He also developed the Owners Manual and presented emergency medical team training courses for this equipment.

A sample of training programs Expert 2367 has developed includes operations, maintenance, environmental health and safety, statistical process control, and technical systems knowledge:

Dresser-Rand. (NY State). Created 34 maintenance courses in an ongoing contract, for compressors and steam turbine operators, mechanics, and rotating equipment engineers. These e-learning courses teach in-depth theory, operations and maintenance practices that parallel traditional, instructor-led classes, and offer quality refresher training to meet just-in-time learning for turnaround projects.

Guardian Industries. (Michigan). In an ongoing contract, creating multilingual training courses for its glass manufacturing plants on four continents. From raw materials to annealing, developing a series of basic and advanced technical training courses for new hires and experienced workers.

GlaxoSmithKline Inc. (Canada). Collected task data from subject matter experts, engineering staff, and vendor manuals for line operation and set-up; defined performance-based training goals; and developed technical training for Tablet Bottle Line, Liquids and Lotions, Compression, and Granulation lines deployed over Glaxo’s Intranet. Used established cGMP policies and Environmental Health & Safety work practices to develop a Core Training Program for all employees.

FailSafe Air Safety Systems (Tonawanda NY). Designed safety labels, developed operating and maintenance manuals, conducted on-site training classes for a Portable Isolation Containment System consisting of a 10-bed shelter and the FASS 3T Filter/HVAC unit.

Medeva Pharmaceutical (Rochester NY). Developed training course for a new packaging line including principles of operation, controls and displays, startup and shutdown procedures, operating adjustments, troubleshooting procedures, and monitoring / inspection procedures.

Nabisco (Niagara Falls NY). Developed training program covering plant’s cGMP for employee and vendor training.

Praxair. Developed training program for engineers covering best practices for Oxygen Systems field modifications.

General Mills (Buffalo, Chicago, Lodi CA). Developed operations and maintenance training programs for major production and packaging lines. One program, for a new line, reduced launch time from 3 months to 2 days. Developed for the new equipment before it arrived on-site.

Exposure Control Technologies (Cary NC). Developed and deployed web-based training and certification program for laboratory fume hood operators for pharmaceutical companies and academic research laboratories.

Combustion Engineering/ABB (Chattanooga TN). Print reading program for heat exchanger production workers.

Ford Glass Plant (Tulsa OK). Operator programs for warehousing, packing, and shipping.

American Motors (Chrysler) Brampton (Canada). Quality control program.

Dofasco (Canada). Multiple programs for computer operation print reading, grinding machine operation, plant lubrication system, line operation, statistical process control, and safety.

Other representative clients include: Asea, Brown, Boveri; Morrison-Knudsen; Ford Motor Company; Corning; General Motors; DuPont; United States Navy; Delphi Harrison; Ontario Hydro; Hayes-Dana; Kodak; Teledyne; Co-Steel Lasco

Expert 2367 provides expert testimony in criminal and personal injury trials (both defense and plaintiff) employing his unique combination of expertise in physics and human factors psychology:

Product and equipment

Design induced errors

Medical equipment errors

Perception and vision

Instructions and procedures

Warnings and labels -individual differences

Training -cognitive psychology

Situational awareness

Vehicle accidents

Industrial and construction accidents

Slip, trip, and fall

Ergonomics and workplace layout

Physics and optics

In 2003, Expert 2367 was an invited columnist for a three-part series on Human Factors for the Buffalo Law Journal.


Available upon receipt


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