Metallurgical Engineer Coatings Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

corrosion, steel, metallic coatings, Galvalume, Galfan, galvanized, aluminized, weathering steel, automobile corrosion, highway bridge, metal roof corrosion,Corten


 BS in Metallurgical Engineering, Drexel University, 1963. Sigma Alpha Mu Honor Society.  Senior Thesis: Atmospheric Corrosion Fatigue - A literature survey
leading to the conclusion that laboratory fatigue tests are actually
corrosion-fatigue tests, unless they are conducted in a vacuum. 

PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania,
1967.  Thesis: A Study of Molten Salt
Mixtures by EMF Techniques - The first measurements ever reported of
electrochemical potentials in molten salt mixtures due to gravity and pressure
differences, and an analysis of their relationship to transport properties by
use of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.


 Research Engineer, 1967-1972. Project engineer for stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen
embrittlement studies of steel pipeline, plate, wire, and fasteners.

Supervisor, 1973-1983.  Group
leader for corrosion testing and development of corrosion-resistant steel
products, including Galvalume.

Manager, 1984-1985.  Responsible
for research division with groups working on corrosion, coated product
development, environmental control technology, and analytical chemistry.

Senior Research Fellow, 1986-1991. Technical resource for corrosion testing and development of
corrosion-resistant steel products, and worldwide monitoring of new coating

Senior Research Consultant, 1992-2001. Technical resource for corrosion testing and development of
corrosion-resistant steel products, and corporate representative on
corrosion-related technical committees and professional organizations.

Private Company Inc.

President, 2001-present.  Technical
consulting and expert witness specializing in low-alloy and coated steel
for the automotive and construction industries,.


A major career achievement was to lead a research group in developing
the relationships between production variables, composition, microstructure,
and corrosion resistance of Galvalume sheet (steel sheet with a 55% Al-Zn alloy
coating).  This work formed a technical
basis that was critical for commercial development of a product which provides
significantly improved corrosion resistance over conventional galvanized sheet.

As part of this effort, long term atmospheric corrosion tests were
conducted and reported over a period of 30 years in support of the
anti-corrosion warranty for the product. This warranty, offered initially for 20 years, was recently been
increased to 30 years on the basis of this testing.

Launched as a new product in 1972, Galvalume use has grown steadily with
worldwide production now exceeding 3 million tons per year (roughly $2 billion
per year) for use in applications requiring enhanced corrosion resistance such
as pre-engineered metal buildings, appliances, and school buses. 

1970 - Constructed the first Pourbaix (potential-pH) diagrams at
elevated temperatures by use of the Criss-Cobble correspondence principal.  This approach correctly predicted the
high-temperature thermodynamics of iron, and subsequently was widely adopted
for use with other metals.

1975 - Published the results of stress corrosion cracking testing of
zinc-coated high-strength steel, including a unique fracture-mechanics
analysis.   This analysis formed the
technical basis of ASTM A490 specifications limiting the hardness of bare and
galvanized high-strength bolts to avoid hydrogen embrittlement and stress
corrosion cracking.

1978 - Published the first of a series of papers documenting the outdoor
atmospheric corrosion performance of 55% Al-Zn alloy-coated steel sheet.  The most recent of this series (1995-6) gave
results after 30 years.  As noted above,
these papers provided a firm technical basis for corrosion warranties on

1983 - Discovered that liquid metal embrittlement of zinc-coated steel
is inhibited by adding 0.04% or more of phosphorus to the steel. This development
allows the use of 55%Al-Zn alloy-coated sheet for high-temperature applications
such as automobile exhaust.

1983 - Discovered that localized dielectric breakdown (sparking) is the
mechanism responsible for cratering of cationic electrophoretic primer. This
discovery led to voltage-control methods now used to avoid pin-hole defects in
automobile primers. 

1985 – Discovered that zinc-rich organic coatings can be made
galvanically active by corona discharge treatment. This discovery made it
possible to impart sacrificial properties to the Zincrometal barrier coating.

1988 - Published the first of a series of papers documenting a long-term
program leading to development of a new standard laboratory corrosion test by the
North American automobile and steel producers. (Reference 44)  Provided technical leadership for work
culminating with the publication in 1996 of SAE J2334, a new cyclic corrosion
test that is becoming widely accepted as the most reliable method for predicting
the corrosion behavior of automobile body panels. Development of an improved
and accepted standard test greatly facilitates the development and
implementation of new and improved materials and methods of corrosion
protection for vehicles.

1990 - Developed a novel method to prevent zinc deposits and provide
anodic protection to stainless steel conductor rolls on a continuous
electrogalvanizing line. This development extends
the life of conductor rolls and reduces the costs of

1996 - Published the results of a joint study with Japanese researchers
to determine the composition and structure of rust layers formed on weathering
steels exposed for long times to the atmospheres of Japan and the US.  This work utilized an array of analytical
methods including microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy to
advance our understanding of protective rust layers.

1999 - Published an analysis based on the Club of Rome model that
demonstrates the impact of advances in corrosion resistance on the
sustainability of the world’s economic growth. This analysis shows that
application of corrosion control technology and development of
corrosion-resistant materials, such as Galvalume and weathering steels, can
have a major contribution to continued development of the world’s economy.

2002 - Created a new method for estimating the relative atmospheric
corrosion resistance of alloy steel from chemical composition. This method was
added to ASTM G101, and a convenient calculator has been placed on the ASTM G1
website to facilitate its application for comparing the corrosion resistance of
various steels.

Professional and Technical Activities

NACE International: member, Chairman of Unit Committee T14A on
Automotive Corrosion, Vice-Chairman, T-3R Atmospheric Corrosion Symposium.

American Society for Testing and Materials: Atmospheric Corrosion
Committee   Task Group Chairman for the
development of laboratory corrosion test methods for steel framing. 

Chairman of the Symposium on Outdoor and Indoor Corrosion.

Society of Automotive Engineers: member of Division 32 Task Group for the
development of SAE J1293, an underbody corrosion test for automotive coated
steel sheet. 

American Iron and Steel Institute and the Auto/Steel Partnership:
Chairman (1992-1996) and Co-Chairman  of
the Corrosion Task Force for the development of SAE J 2334, an improved
laboratory corrosion test for automotive sheet steel; Chairman of the Corrosion
Advisory Group for the development of high performance bridge steel.

American Society for Metals: Chairman of the Joint Commission on
Metallurgical Transactions; Chairman of the Corrosion Protection Section of the
Metals Handbook Volume on Corrosion. 

Licensed Professional Engineer.

Professor, (1993-2001).

AWARDS Available
Upon Request

Upon request

 US PATENTS Available
Upon Request