Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, Nurse, Forensic Nurse, Forensic Sexual Assault, Registered Nurse, SANE A, Sexual Assault, Sexual Assault Nurse,


Bachelor of Science in Nursing, 1989 University of Minnesota, School of Nursing Minneapolis, Minnesota
Graduate Coursework: Statistics; Child Abuse, 1990 University of Minnesota

Registered Nurse Licensure – State of California Public Health Nurse Certification – concurrent
Member, International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN)
Board Certified SANE-A in 2001 by the Forensic Nursing Certification Board of the IAFN

Hospital Staff Nurse – Pediatrics and Pediatric Oncology Public Health Field Work – High-Risk Maternal and Child 1992 International Special Olympics – Medical Team Migrant Health – Perinatal Outreach
Public Health Clinic Nurse – Family Planning, Prenatal Care, Well Women & Pediatrics
Health Care for the Homeless – Maternal and Child Outreach Triage Nurse – Ob/Gyn, Pediatrics

Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) – Nurse Examiner, January 1998 to present SART Nurse Program Coordinator/Supervisor – August 1998 to June 2006
Victim Forensic Exams performed – approx 500
Additional Victim Exams reviewed for quality assurance – at least 700
Child Forensic Interviews observed for potential Forensic Medical Exams – 150+ Independent Contractor/Suspect Exams – SBPD & SBSO 2006 to 2014

Independent Forensic Nurse Consultant/Expert Witness since 2007 Qualified as an Expert Witness in approximately 70 trials, both civilian and military
Item Writer, SANE-A Examination, Forensic Nursing Certification Board/IAFN Chapter author, Forensic Nursing Core Curriculum, Lippincott, 2015

September 1997
Provided by Santa Barbara County SART, a multi-disciplinary team, and the Santa
Barbara County Public Health Department, Forty Hour Didactic: SART concept, Roles of a coordinated Team
Psycho-dynamics of rape
Sexual Assault History taking; Informed Consent OCJP(OES/CalEMA) Form 923
Evidence Collection, timing considerations, Rape Kit and Crime Lab requirements Forensic Exam: needs of the victim, needs of the justice system
Anatomy: normal, abnormal, normal variant Injury recognition: genital, anal, other Mechanism of injury
Treatment and Prophylaxis protocols Evidence integrity and the Chain of Custody
Cultural considerations and Special Needs (language, literacy, disabilities, adolescence, elderly, sexual orientation)
Interpersonal violence Offender profiles
Rape Trauma Syndrome Testifying in court
Forty-five Hour Preceptorship including : Crime Lab orientation
Law enforcement ride-along Jury trial observation Pelvic exam training Venipuncture
One-on-one mentoring by experienced Examiners


November 2007
Provided by the California Clinical Forensic Medical Training Center (CCFMTC), San Diego, CA

Available upon request


  • Child Maltreatment & Family Violence Conference, San Diego, CA ’99, ’00, ’01 California Sexual Assault Investigators Association Conference, ’99, ’01 Courtroom Communications for Forensic Examiners, Los Angeles, CA ’02
  • IAFN 10 th Annual Scientific Assembly, Minneapolis, MN 2002 Forensic Case History & Crime Lab findings
  • Speculum vs. non-Speculum Assisted Vaginal Swabs When the Victim Can’t Remember
  • Elder Sexual Assault
  • Sexual Homicide of Elderly Females
  • Development of an Evaluation Tool for SANE Programs Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Documentation Physical Findings after First Consensual Intercourse
  • Colposcopic Findings of Women after Consensual/Non-Consensual Intercourse Genital Injury Associated with Forced Digital Penetration
  • A Well Organized Sexual Assault Examination
  • IAFN 11 th Annual Scientific Assembly, Las Vegas, NV 2003 Biological Evidence and DNA Profiling
  • Integrating Forensic Nursing at the Harris County Medical Examiner’s Office Adolescent Sexual Assault: Epidemiology and Patterns of Anogenital Injury Old Woods Lamp Die Hard
  • Forensic Evidence Collection in the ER Evidence Collection at a Rape Homicide Scene
  • Glitter Particle Traces: Forensic Characterization and Assessment of Evidential Value
  • Forensic Nurse Examiner and Domestic Violence Is the Defense, Defendable?
  • Using Digital Photography for Documenting Genital Trauma in Sexual Assault Emergency Contraception
  • Beyond Evidence Collection: The Health Effects of Sexual Assault From Forensic Exam to Prosecution
  • Behavior Analysis of Violent Crime Scenes
  • IAFN 13 th Annual Scientific Assembly, Washington, DC, 2005 The Polygraph
  • Male Sexual Assault
  • Alcohol and Adult Sexual Assault in a Community Based Population of Women Comparison of Examination Methods in the Evaluation of the Sexually Abused Female
  • Adapting a SANE Course for US Military Personnel
  • Use of Anoscopy by SANE in the Sexual Assault Examination Identifying and Caring for Victims of Strangulation
  • Care of the Pregnant Sexual Assault Victim
  • Ethical Forensic Nursing Practice HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Study
  • Self-Inflicted Injuries Seen in Adolescents who have been Sexually/Physically Abused
  • Sexual Assault Care in the Military: Past, Present, Future Examining the Developmentally Disabled
  • Theoretical Perspectives of Forensic Nursing Woods Lamp Update
  • Predictors of Injury with Rape
  • Identification and Interpretation of the Adult/Adolescent AnoGenital Exam
  • IAFN 15th Annual Scientific Assembly, Salt Lake City, UT 2007 Women’s Risks of Injuries During Sexual Assault
  • Patterns of Genital Injury in Women Who are Sexually Assaulted While Incapacitated
  • Factors That Predict Prosecution of Adult SANE Cases Response to Sexual Assault Patients with Physical Disabilities
  • Healing of Genital Injuries in the Pre-Pubertal & Adolescent Female
  • Estimating the Age of Bruises in Victims of Violence: Is There Evidence to Support This Practice?
  • Reporting of Forced Sex by Black College women: Perceptions of Resources and Barriers
  • Hymen Morphology Updated – Classifying Estrogen Effect Across the Lifespan Special Challenges for the Forensic Nurse: Consulting for the Defense
  • IAFN 16 th Annual Scientific Assembly, Dallas, TX 2008 Evidence Based Interpretation of Genital Injury
  • Let’s Take the Daubert Challenge; An Exploration into Forensic Nursing Science Is Skin Color a Source of Health Disparity in the Forensic Sexual Assault Exam? Forensics and the Link to Interpersonal Violence, Trauma, and Injury
  • Elder Sexual Abuse
  • The Forensic Nurse as Expert Witness
  • Injuries to the Cervix Following Sexual Assault
  • Sexual Assault Exam Timing Considerations (finding sperm and semen for DNA), IAFN, December 2009 (webinar)
  • Peer Review Guidelines, IAFN, June 2010 (webinar)
  • Forensic Photography Symposium, IAFN, March 2011 (San Diego)
  • ACFEI Executive Summit, Las Vegas, NV, October, 2012
  • Pitfalls in Forensic Science: Lessons Learned in High Profile Cases – Dr. Henry Lee and Dr. Cyril Wecht
  • Analyzing and Interpreting Behavior in Serial Murder & Sexual Homicide – Mark Safarik, FBI Ret.
  • Identification of Non-Accidental Injuries in Children – Dr. Sue Gabriel
  • George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin: 911 Audio Tape Analysis -& Forensic Voice Analysis – Tom Owen
  • IAFN International Conference on Forensic Nursing Science and Practice, Anaheim, CA October 2013
  • Advanced Anorectal Examination of the Sexual Assault Patient with Clinical Skills Lab
  • Clinical Forensic Nursing Evaluation in the Strangulation Patient
  • Physical Examination Findings and Children’s Understanding of AnoGenital Anatomy in Cases of Child Sexual Assault
  • Strangulation – He More Than Just Choked Her Female Aggression and Related Injuries in Elder Abuse
  • Abusive Head Trauma: Current Controversies & Opposing Theories (Pediatric) Child Sexual Maltreatment Case Studies
  • Interpretation of Skin Injuries in Children
  • Incorporating the Joyce Adams’ Criteria into Your Practice
  • IAFN International Conference on Forensic Nursing Science and Practice, Phoenix, CA 2014
  • State of the Science on Alcohol-Induced Memory Loss Legal Challenges to Forensic Nursing Testimony
  • Strangulation Assessment, Evidence Collection, and Documentation: A Protocol Pediatric Strangulation
  • Justice beyond the Grave and the Sixth Amendment
  • Special Considerations for Adolescent Victims of Sexual Assault Case Review