Provides Testimony In

Nurse, Forensic Nurse, Board Certified Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, Legal Nurse Consultant, LNC, RN, Nurse, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, SANE A, Nurse Examiner, Sexual Assault, Interpersonal Violence, Domestic Abuse, Policies Procedures of Examination, Adult, Adolescent, Pediatric, Elder Abuse, Elder Sexual AssaultM


  • 1969-1971 Clinical Assistant-Volunteer for a health department and free clinic in California
  • 1971-1974 Associate of Arts degree, Graduate Registered Nurse, College in California
  • 1974 CCU Certificate, hospital in California
  • 1980 Emergency Department Nursing, hospital in California
  • 1988 Psychosocial Nursing Assessment & Intervention
  • 1989 Prenatal Care
  • 1990 Child Abuse, Pediatric Nursing, Newborn Assessment
  • 1991 Children in Violent Environments
  • 1992 Becoming a Preceptor, Pediatric Advanced Life Support Certification, Adolescent Suicide
  • 1993 How to Detect & Respond to Suicidal Patients, sexual assault institute in California

Certifications in:

  • Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner
  • The Sexual Assault Response team Process
  • Role of the advocate: the Victim/Witness program
  • Working with Law Enforcement
  • Special Needs of the Victim
  • The Forensic Interview
  • Forensic Evidence Collection, Packaging & Documentation
  • Profiling Sex Offenders
  • Pediatric Examination
  • Medical Legal Examination of the Adult Patient
  • Overview of the Judicial System
  • Courtroom Testimony
  • Males as Survivors
  • 1994 Sexual Abuse of Children & Adolescents, PALS renewal, Patient & Family Education
  • 1994 Forensic nurses association in Virginia, “From Trauma to Trial”
  • Clinical Forensic Pathology
  • Forensic Photography
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Profiling Rapists
  • Stalking
  • Poisoning
  • Evaluation of the Gunshot Wound
  • Blunt & Sharp Traumatic Injuries
  • Amnesia & Traumatic Injury
  • False Memory Syndrome
  • Practical Aspects of Forensic Nursing: Medical Evidence Statistics
  • The Adolescent Victim
  • Violent Offenders
  • Unusual Cases & Tour of the FBI Academy
    1995 Typology of the Sex Offender, sheriff’s station in California
  • Medical/Legal Examination of the Pediatric & Adolescent Sexual Assault Victim
  • Pediatric Sexual Assault Examinations
  • Adolescent Sexual Assault Examinations
  • Serial Rapist Typologies
  • Criminal Sexuality
  • Conscious Sedation
  • 1995 Forensic nurses association in Kentucky, scientific assembly
  • Nursing Jurisprudence
  • Chain of Custody & Rules of Evidence
  • Documentation & the Forensic Nurse
  • The Autopsy: Office of the Coroner, Kentucky
  • Forensic Mental Health
  • Evidentiary Significance of the Human Bite Mark
  • Historical Forensic Investigations
  • Contemporary Forensic Science
  • Evaluation of the Adolescent Hymen
  • The Interrelationships of Forensic Specialties
  • Autopsy observation & assisting
  • 1996 PALS Renewal
  • Pain Management
  • 1996 Forensic nurses Association in Missouri, scientific assembly
  • Nurse Jurisprudence
  • Interview & Documentation
  • Ethical Practices in Forensic Science
    Sudden Cardiac Death: A Forensic Nursing Assessment
  • Physical Evidence Impacting Forensic Nursing
  • Forensic Nurses Conducting a Psychological Autopsy
  • Family & Domestic Violence
  • The Forensic Nurse as an Assistant to the Medical Examiner
  • Crime Scene Reconstruction
  • The Future & the Forensic Nurse
  • Genetic Evidence & the Forensic Nurse Examiner
  • Tour of Lansing Correctional Facility
  • 1997 Forensics Symposium, University in California
  • Violence in Today’s Society
  • Role of the Forensic Nurse
  • Legal Implications
  • The Expert Forensic Examiner
  • Violence & Abuse: The Impact on Families, Society & the Health Care System
  • 1997 Injuries & Death Investigation, Through the Eyes of the Forensic Nurse, forensic medicine center in Florida
  • Role of the Medical Examiner
  • Poisons
  • Principles of Investigation
  • Changes in the Body after Death: Morgue Observation
  • Family Violence
  • Evidence Collection: Techniques & Documentation
  • The Crash of Valujet  #592
  • Santeria & Palo Mayombi
  • Bite Mark Evidence: Collection of Specimens & Photography
  • Bite Marks: Morgue Observation
  • Mechanical Asphyxiation
  • Fatal Distraction: Auto Erotic Mechanical Asphyxia
  • Rape/ Homicide Investigation
  • Unusual Cases
  • Traumatic Deaths: Morgue Observation
  • Trauma in the Emergency Room
  • Tour of a Medical Examiner’s Office
  • 1997 Forensic nurse association: scientific assembly in California
  • Forensic Photography
  • Drugs & Sexual assault: Rohypnol, Ketamine, GHB, ETOH
  • Clinical & On-Scene Photo Documentation
  • Terrorism in Oklahoma City: Mass Fatalities Plan
  • Lethal Injuries in Children
  • Sudden Infant Death Update
  • Evidence Collection in the Clinical Setting
  • The Forensic Interview
  • Tattoos & Gang Graffiti
  • Female Genital Anatomy throughout the Life Stages
  • Bite Marks & Making Bite Impressions
  • Surviving a Hostage Situation
  • Medico-Legal Documentation

Case Reviews

  • 1998 PALS Renewal, Advanced Cardiac Life Support Certification
  • 1998 Forensic nurses association, scientific assembly in Pennsylvania
  • Advanced Sexual Assault Examiners Workshop
  • Danger Signs: Forced Sex in Intimate Partner Relationships
  • Role of the Forensic Nurse in Burn Triage
  • Psychosocial Profile of the Burn Abusing Adult
  • Application of Forensics in the Investigation of Burn Injuries
  • Forensics in the Graduate & Undergraduate Education
  • SIDS vs Gentle Smothering: A case History
  • Sudden Infant Death Investigation
  • Teenage Suicide: Guidelines for Determining Manner
  • Necrosearch: Detection of Clandestine Graves
  • A Study of Forensic Nursing Role Behaviors
  • Forensic Health Programs in Hospitals
  • Rape Prevention Education: Why Focus Needs to be on Adolescents
  • Responding to Adolescent Victims of Sexual Assault
  • Defining the Role of the Forensic Nurse in Disaster Response
  • Courtroom Survival: Tips From the Trenches
  • Testifying Techniques
  • Forensic Scientific Evidence
  • Interviewing for Investigation of Sexual Abuse of People with Developmental Disabilities
  • Child Abuse: The School Nurse Assessment
  • Non-Physician Child Abuse Examiners: Standards & Systems
  • Homicide Bereavement
  • Patterns of Anal/Rectal Injury in Sexual Assault
  • Seroprevalence of HIV & Other STDs in Sexual Assault Suspects & Victims
  • Forensic Investigation: The Nursing Perspective

Case Reviews

1999 Forensic nurses association, scientific assembly in Arizona

International Developments in Forensic Nursing

Biomechanics for Traffic Collision Reconstruction

Genital Examination of the Sexual Homicide Victim

Death in Custody: A Case History

Child Protection Team Investigation Strategies

Investigating Ritual Homicide & Abuse

Staff Patient Boundary Violation

Emergency Contraception Update

Domestic Violence in Indian Country

The Columbine Tragedy

Healing of Acute Anal/Genital Injuries

Computer Animation Morphing

Forensic Colposcopy

2000 ACLS Recertification

Courtroom Communications at medical training center in California

Domestic Violence: Evidence Collection & Prosecution

Unfounded allegations in Sexual Assault

Trafficking of Persons for Forced Labor & Slavery-like practices

Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking

2000 Forensic nurses association, scientific assembly in Canada

SANE/SART Research Development and Utilization
Sexual Assault Council Meeting

Swiss Air 111: Reflections & Perspectives of a Forensic Professional

Forensic Nursing: Offender Focus

Child Prostitution: Strategies for Recovery

Estrogen Effect on the Hymen Membrane Across the Lifespan

Genital Injury Patterns in Adolescent Females post Vaginal Rape

Sperm & Acid Phosphatase Findings in Adolescent Post-Vaginal Sexual Assault

Recognition of Child Sexual Abuse: Conditions Commonly Mistaken for Abuse

A Global Perspective on Human Rights

Surviving & Thriving as an Expert Witness

Female Homicide Victims: Twenty Years Experience Seattle

Client’s Experience with a Specialized Sexual Assault Service

Providing Services to Victims of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault

Guidelines for Community Needs Assessment for a SANE Program using the Neuman Model

Implementation of the Domestic Violence Pilot Projects at Seven Sexual Assault Centers

Motivating Factors of Rapists

High Risk High Need Sex Offender Programming: A Pilot Study

Maintaining Viability of your Forensic Program

Effects of Prior Relationship Between Victims of Rape & Their Assailants on Injury Outcomes

Strangulation Injury: A Tool for Documentation

Globalization of Forensic Nursing

2001 Sheriff scent dogs, Metro Meeting at hospital in California

Healthcare Response to Domestic Violence

First National SART/SANE Conference, Texas

Healthcare Response to Domestic Violence, California
Sexual Deviancy, California

American Indian Violence and Intervention, California

2001 Forensic nurses association, assembly in Florida

Violent Deaths: Gunshot Wounds, Asphyxia and Stabbing

Forensic Use of Search and Rescue Dogs

Homicide of Children

This Patient Needs a Forensic Nurse

Beyond Masters and Johnson: What do we really know about the Sexual Human Response?

Evolution of Rape Law and Forensic Evidence: A Historical Perspective

Excellence in Forensic Practice: Retaining Forensic Nurse Examiners with a Clinical Ladder Based
on the Benner’s Novice to Expert Framework

Domestic Violence: Obtaining Consistency in Data Collection, Intervention and Referrals

The Rave Subculture and Today’s Dance Scene

Regional of Practice for Interdisciplinary SART- Pitfalls and Promises

Expanding Forensic Services to Meet the Needs of the Community

DNA on Bodies: Where Has It Come From?

Fire and Behavior: Making the Connection-Quenching the Flames

Foley Catheter Techniques for Visualizing the Hymen in Adolescent Sexual Assault Victims

Significance of Toluidine Blue Positive Findings Following Speculum Examination for Sexual Assault

Is the SANE an Advocate: Issues

Forensic Nursing: A Concept Analysis for the United Kingdom

Terminology for the Forensic Nurse Examiner

Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis: An Underappreciated Threat

From Exam Room to Court Room – Nurses and Lawyers Working Together

Rape and Rave Drugs at police department in California

False Victimization in Sexual Assault Cases presentation in California

2002 Pilot Data Conference, Minnesota

Civil Recourse for Victims of Sexual Assault, California

Internet Predators, California

Cold Hit Cases: crime lab, California

2002 Forensic nurses association, scientific assembly in Minnesota

Forensic Photography Workshop: Digital Imaging for Forensic Nursing Professionals

Sexual Assault, Then and Now

Denial and Deceit of the Perpetrator

Deaths Due to Excited Delirium

Final Exit Deaths: Suicide and Assisted Suicides

Death Investigations: Domestic Violence

Speculum vs Non-speculum Assisted Swabs

When a Victim Can’t Remember

Elder Sexual Assault

Sexual Homicide of Elderly Females

The Well Organized Sexual Assault Exam

Physical Findings After First Consensual Intercourse

Police Canine Units

Forensic Wound Pathology and Forensic Photography, California

Firearms Evidence, California

2003 SANE/SART training conference in Louisiana

DNA Evidence: Enhancing Law Enforcement’s Impact from Crime Scene to Courtroom and Beyond.

How Sex Offenders Fool People

New Techniques in Processing DNA Evidence and How They Impact Collection, Investigation and Prosecution

Forensic Markers in Elder Abuse: Assessing the Trauma

Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault: Why we Fail; How we can Succeed

Forensic Photography: Yes or No to Going Digital

Adolescent Victims of Sexual Assault: A Strategic Response to the Realities of Prosecution.

Being a Sleuth: Differentiating Accidental from Intentional Injury.

Batterers Treatment Programs, Chinatown service center

The Role of the Nurse in the Coroner’s Setting, county coroner’s office, California

DNA Databank 2003 Legislative Update

2003 Forensic nurses association, scientific assembly in Nevada

Postmortem Sexual Assault Examinations

SANE Peer Review Session

Preventing Violence Against Women

The Victim’s Perspective: The Debbie Smith Act

Biological Evidence and DNA Profiling

Death Investigations: Integrating Forensic Nursing at the Harris County Medical Examiner’s Office
Train Fatalities

Asphyxia Events Related to Ligatures

Efficacy of SANE Evidence Collection: A Study in Colorado

Adolescent Sexual Assault: Epidemiology and Patterns of Anogenital Injury

Evidence Collection at a Rape Homicide Scene

Forensic Nursing: A Response to Global Violence

Is the Defense, Defendable?

The Innocent, What Have We Learned?

From Forensic Examination to Prosecution

There’s Enough Work for All of Us

Behavior Analysis of Violent Crime Scenes

2003 Forensic nurse Conference, California

Forensic Art: Composite Drawings, Age Enhancement, Cold Cases

Gang Identification: Behaviors, Tattooing, Gang Signs, Tagging

Internet Horror: The Connection and Apprehension of the Suspect

Fingerprint ID

Human Living Vampires


Child Abuse: Child Development Issues-Normal Sexual Behavior in Each Developmental Age:
Cognitive, Physical, Emotional

Child Interviewing

Intro to Death Investigation

SIDS vs Overlay-Child Death Review

Elder Abuse: When the Golden Years Aren’t so Golden

2004 Training in sexual assault investigation, California

Case-Murder Homicide in Hawaii

Reporting and Investigation of sexual assault in the Gay and Lesbian Community

Interview and Investigation of the Cary Staynor Case

Forensic Nurses Peer Review
“Operation Hamlet” International Internet Child Exploitation Ring

Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault-What’s new?

What We Learned from the Westerfield Case

Forensic nurse meetings on Cold Hit Cases, Legal Aspects of Forensic Exams, Domestic Violence Exams

2004 Forensic nurses association, scientific assembly in Illinois
Research Based Expert Testimony
The Undetected Rapist-Part 1 & 2

Male Sexual Assault Victims

Sexual Assault in Post Menopausal Women

Trace Evidence from Bodies

Toluidine Blue Dye Procedure and Current Issues

Forensic Evidence Collection from Bodies and Crime Scenes

Post Mortem Sexual Assault Exams

Death Investigation of Sex Crimes

Developmental and Forensic Pediatrics

Child Sexual Abuse and Courtroom Testimony

Evaluating the Effectiveness of SANE Programs

SANE Peer Review

Forensic Delegation in China

International Forensic Nursing

2004 Child Forensic Interview Training. California

2005 Child Abuse Mandated Reporter Training

Cal. Dept of Social Services, Office of Child Abuse Prevention

California Institute of Human Services, Sonoma State University

SANE-SART 3rd National Conference
San Francisco, California

Overcoming the Consent Defense: Special Investigation and Prosecution Issues

Everything, Especially DNA, is Necessary Evidence to Overcome Consent Defenses

The Military Responds to Sexual Assault

Military SART Advance: Air Force, Navy, Army

Technology and the SART: Telemedicine, Case Tracking, On-Line Training

Measuring SART Success, Tools, Data Collection, Victim View

SART on the Indian Reservation

Is It An Isolated Assault?  Serial Rapists/ Crimes Clearinghouse

What is SART Success?

The Aftermath of Silence: A Survivor’s Story

Miss America by Day: A Journey of Recovery from 13 Years of

Nobody Will Believe Me!

The McMartin Preschool Trial

Long Beach, California


International Association of Forensic Nurses, 13th Annual Scientific
Assembly, Arlington, Virginia

Co-Chair SANE Council

Anatomy of a Criminal Case: Crossroads of Science and the

The Belmont Shore Rapist

The Polygraph: An Investigative Tool

Crawford v Washington

Male Sexual Assault

Alcohol and Adult Sexual Assault

Pediatric Sexual Abuse Findings in the Absence of

Care of the Pregnant Sexual Assault Patient

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

Ethical Forensic Nursing Practice: A Matter of Relationship

Forensic Investigation of Suicide in Harris County, Texas
Preparing for Courtroom Testimony

Predictors of Injury with Rape

Identification and Interpretation of the Adult/Adolescent

Anogenital Exam

Nurses on the Frontline in Addressing Violence and the
Continuum of Sexual Assault

International Forensic Nursing

SCCIAFN 4th Annual Fall Conference
Long Beach, California

Stalking-The Dynamics of Pursuit Behaviors

Court Testimony in Sexual Assault Cases

Peer Review

  • Justice for All: The Belmont Shore Rapist
  • Child Pornography & Internet Chat Rooms
  • The Night Stalker: The Richard Ramirez Case
  • 2006 Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy
  • On-line Merion Publications
  • Dos and Don’t of Trace Evidence
    Long Beach
  • False Reporting: A Case Study
    Det. Phil Worts, SDPD
    San Diego
  • International Association of Forensic Nurses, 14th Annual Scientific
    Assembly, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • Notorious Psychiatric Cases, Globally: Cases that Changed the Laws
  • Pediatric Sexual Abuse Training Institute
  • Workplace Violence
  • Human Trafficking
  • Child Pornography
  • Patterns of Knowing as a Method of Assessment and Intervention
  • Genital Examinations: Variations on a Theme
  • Forensic Evidence: Recovery and Analysis; Speaking for the Dead
  • Cultural Approach to Violence
  • Legal Autopsy of the Medical Chart
  • Sexual Assault of Gay, Lesbian and Transgendered Youth
  • Dissecting of a Criminal Case: Insights from the Defense Perspective
  • Disasters/Multiple Fatalities
  • Justice Truth and Rights

Peer Review and Slide Evaluation

  • SANE Council
  • LNC Council
  • Southern California Chapter IAFN 5th Annual Fall Conference
  • Child Investigative Interviewing: Research Based Approach for Maximizing Accuracy and Completeness
  • Practical and Real Duties of the Coroner/Death Investigator
  • Body Found in Water Death Investigations
  • 2007 Recovering from Rape, Community Services-SCCIAFN
    Tiara Brock, CSP
  • International Association of Forensic Nurses, 15th Annual Scientific
  • Assembly, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Unto the Third Generation: A Call for the End of Child Abuse in 120 Years
  • Strangulation in Intimate Partner Relationships (and beyond)
  • Photo Review (case presenter)
  • Risk of Injuries during Sexual Assault
  • Patterns of Injury in Women Sexually Assaulted while Incapacitated
  • Primary Prevention of Violence against Women
    Factors that Predict Prosecution of Adult Sexual Assault Cases
  • Response to Sexual Assault Patients with Disabilities
  • Healing of Genital Injuries in the Pre-Pubertal and Adolescent Patient
  • Fostering Violence Free and Socially Just Communities
  • Forensic Nursing in the Netherlands
  • The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Homicide Rates in Harris County
  • Impact of co-victims in Homicide and Unexpected Death
  • Forensic Nursing in Germany
  • Health and Human Rights for Afghan Women
  • Ethical Issues in Forensic Nursing
  • Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault
  • 2008 International Association of Forensic Nurses, 16th Annual Scientific Assembly, Dallas, Texas
  • The Forensic Nurse and the Criminal Defense Team
  • Research Presentation-Ano-Genital Photography
  • Pediatric SANE: Partnering to Provide Comprehensive Care to Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse/Assault
  • Vigorous Wiping, Self Mutilation, Rough Sex, or Sexual Assault? Evidence based Interpretation of Genital Injury
  • SANE Photo Review/Slide Night
  • Let’s Take to Daubert Challenge!  An Exploration into Forensic Nursing Science (Part 1)
  • Let’s Take to Daubert Challenge!  An Exploration into Forensic Nursing Science (Part 2)
  • Research Presentation-Forensic Nurse’s Experience of Receiving Child Abuse Disclosure
  • Research Presentation-Is Skin Color a Source of Health Disparity in the Forensic Sexual Assault Examination?
  • The Stakes are High! Recognizing Conditions that May Mimic Child Abuse
  • Death Investigation Photography
  • Research Presentation-Injuries to the Cervix Following Sexual Assault
  • SCCIAFN- Southern California Chapter IAFN Meeting 11-8-08
    Mission Viejo, California
  • “Can the Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner Determine Consent?”
    Malinda Wheeler

Employment History

1989-1993 Pediatric Emergency/Urgent Care/Sexual Assault Exams, university medical center, California

1993-Present Forensic Nurse Examiner, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, Consultant, Lecturer

1994-1998 Medical Center, GI Lab, California

1987-1998 Camp Nurse in Residence, education bureau

1998-Present Camp Nurse in Residence at a High School in California

1991-2001 Instructor in CPR EMSA Approved Mandatory Pediatric Courses for Child Care Providers

1998-2001 Violence Intervention Program, sexual assault center, Forensic Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, California

1998-2000 Forensic Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner at community hospital, California

2000-2001 Forensic Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner at a medical center, California

2000-2003 Forensic Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, Clinical Forensic Coordinator: Sexual Assault Response Team and Domestic Assault Response Team, medical center, California

Consulting and expert witness for defense counsel and prosecutors since 2000

2003-Present President/CEO of forensic nurse company, Forensic Evidentiary Exams, Consulting, Education

2005 – Present University in California, Instructor

2007 – Present Institute of Forensic Education, Instructor


Charter Member of the International Association of Forensic Nurses

Southern California Regional Representative of the International Association of Forensic Nurses, Emeritus

International Association of Forensic Nurses: Co-Chair SANE Council

Charter & Founding Member of the Southern California Chapter of the International Association of Forensic Nurses

Southern California Chapter of the International Association of Forensic Nurses: Board of Directors

California Sexual Assault Investigators Association

Los Angeles County Sexual Assault Coordinating Council: Standards & Protocol Committee Network Against Asian Violence Association

Los Angeles County Domestic Violence Council

Los Angeles Metro Meetings

National Nurses in Business Association


The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner as Defense Consultant

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