Human Factors Eyewitness Memory Expert Witness

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Human Factors Eyewitness Memory Expert Witness

Provides Opinion & Testimony In:

Human Factors, Human Factors Eyewitness Testimony Memory Accuracy Perception, Memory, Eyewitness Testimony, Eyewitness Identification Lineup Procedures, Recovered Memory, Childrens Understanding, Memory Testimony, Reliability of Fingerprint Identification, Linguistics Language, Human Factors of Safety Including Product Design, Warnings Training, Human Factors of Accidents, Human Factors Issues of Safety, Warnings, Human Error, Accident Evaluation, Equipment Design, Training Adequacy, Facial Recognition, Biometrics,

Current Positions

Partner in Human Factors Consulting Firm, 1987-present

Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680, 1994–present

Research Associate, Department of Psychology, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1995–present


BA   University of Michigan, 1949-1953; Philosophy (with honors)

MA   Wesleyan University (Connecticut), 1953-1954, Psychology

Ph.D. Stanford University, 1954-1957, Psychology

Post-Doctoral Fellow, Applied Psych. Unit, Med. Res. Council, Cambridge, Engl.1970-1971

Honors: Pre-Doctoral

University Scholastic Honors, University of Michigan, 1953

Graduated with Honors in Philosophy, University of Michigan, 1953

Behavioral Science Fellowship, Ford Foundation, 1953-1954

Honors Fellowship, Stanford University, 1954-1955

Society of the Sigma Xi, Associate Member, 1954; Full Member, 1957

Honors: Post-Doctoral

Fellow, American Psychological Association, Div. 3, 1970; Div. 2, 1983

Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1971

Special Post-Doctoral Fellowship, USPHS-NIMH, 1970-1971

Outstanding Achievement Award, University of Michigan, 1977

Fellow, Institute of the Humanities, University of Illinois, 1984-1985

University Appointments:  Pre Ph.D.,   1954-l957

Wesleyan University:  Research assistant to David McClelland, summers 1954, l955

Stanford University:  Teaching assistant, l954; Research assistant to Robert Sears, 1955-l956;

Honors seminar instructor, 1956-l957

Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park:  Research psychologist, 1956

University Permanent Appointments:  Post Ph.D., 1957-present

Stanford University:  Research associate, Inst. Communication Res., l957-l958

San Francisco State College:  Instructor, l957-l958

Yale University:  Assistant Professor, l958-l964; Chairman, Divisional Major III, an undergraduate
interdisciplinary honors behavioral science major, l959-l964

University of Rochester: Associate Professor of Psychology, l964-l967; Professor of Psychology,
l967-l970; Chairman, Department of Psychology, l967-l970; Professor of Psychology and Visual
Science, l970-l972; Prof. of Psychology, Visual Science and Education, l972-l979

University of Illinois at Chicago: Professor of Psychology, l979-1991; Research Professor of
Psychology, 1991-1994; Professor Emeritus of Psychology, 1994-present

University of California at Santa Cruz, Research Associate, Department of Psychology, 1995-present

University of California at Riverside, Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychology, 1997-1999


Society of the Sigma Xi, Member, l957-present

American Psychological Association, Member, l958-1990; Fellow, Div 3, l970; Fellow, Div 2, l983.

Eastern Psychological Association, Member, l959-l975

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Member, l960-; Fellow, l97l

Psychonomics Society, Member, l964-

American Association of University Professors, Member, l960-

Optical Society of America, Member, l966-

New York Academy of Science, Member, l969-

National Academy of Sciences National Research Council Committee on Vision, l970-72; l980-82.

Experimental Psychology Society of England, Foreign Member, l970-

Linguistic Society of America, Member, l974-

British Psychological Society, Foreign Affiliation, l983

Midwestern Psychological Association, Member, 1984-present

Human Factors Society, Member, 1987–present

American Psychological Society, Fellow, 1988–present

External Research Support:

National Science Foundation, Grant, Research on Achievement Motivation, l955-l956

National Science Foundation, Grants, Undergraduate Research Training and Participation, l960-l964

National Institute of Mental Health, Grant, Antecedents of Perceptual Processing, l959-l964

National Science Foundation, Grant, Antecedents of Perceptual Selectivity, l964-l966

National Science Foundation, Grant, Information Processing Analyses of Perceptual Selectivity, l967-l969

National Science Foundation, Grant, Purchase of a Digital Computer for Perceptual Research, l966-l968

Office of Education Contract, Eidetic Imagery in Children, 1965-1968

Special Post-doctoral Fellowship, NIMH, to work at the Applied Psychology Unit, Medical Research Council, Cambridge, England,

National Institute of Mental Health, Grant; Antecedents of Perceptual Selectivity, 1965-1975

U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratories, Contract; Antecedents of Perceptual Selectivity, 1971-1975
U.S. Office of Education: Contract; An Information Processing Analysis of Reading, 1972-3

National Institute of Education Grant; Perceptual Components of Reading, 1973-6

U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research; University Research Resident Program Contract, 1981-2

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railway Administration Contract: Training of Railway Freight Engineers, 1984-1985

U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transit Administration Contract, Vigilance Problems in Subway Motormen, 1985

Veterans Administration, Hines VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Center Contract: Spatial Cognition in the Blind, 1987

Veterans Administration, Rehabilitation Research and Development Center, Washington. Contract: Measuring the Knowledge of

Spatial Layout of Visually Impaired Adults, 1988-1989.

Veterans Administration, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Washington. Contract: The development of an objective measure of orientation skill in the blind, 1990.

National Eye Institute: Measuring the Knowledge of Spatial Layout in Blind Adults.  Grant, 1990-1993

Elective Positions

American Psychological Association, Division rep. to the APA Council, 1991-1994.

Professional Advisory and Consulting Activities:

Member of Woodrow Wilson Fellowship Regional Selection Committee, 1969-1970

Occasional Consulting Editor: Psychological Review, Psychological Bulletin, Perception and Psychophysics, Canadian Journal of

Psychology, American Journal of Psychology, Journal of Personality, Experimental and Social Psychology, American Psychologist, Journal of Experimental Psychology

Occasional Grant and Contract Reviewer: National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Mental Health, National Eye Institute,

U.S. Army Research Laboratory.  Member, Publisher’s Editorial Board Advisory Editor for Experimental Psychology, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Publishers, 1969-1978

Advisory Editor for Handbook of Perception, Academic Press, 1973-1978

Editorial Board Member for Scientific Journals: Psychologische Forschung, l973-l980; Acta Psychologica, l973-1980; Journal of

Mental Imagery, l977-present; International Mental Imagery Review, l980-1985; Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging, l98l-1990t;

Developmental Neuropsychology, l984-1990; Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, l985-l988,

Society of Photo-Electri-Instrumentation Engineers(SPIE)annual conference; Planning committee for robotics, 1989-1993

Research Consultant: Veterans Administration, 1967-1970; United States Air Force Safety and Inspection Center, Norton Air Force Base, California, l982-1993;

Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute on Railway Engineer  Training, 1985-1993;

Consultant to the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute on Alerter Devices in Freight Locomotive Cabs, 1986-1988;
Consultant to the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute on the Peacekeeper Rail  Garrison System; task analyses, performance assessment, and training, 1987-1989;

Consultant to University Research Systems on development of tests of  locomotive engineer train handling skills, 1987-1990.

Academic Administrative Experience

Available upon Request

Legal Consultation

My expertise in human memory and perception has been drawn upon by prosecution and defense lawyers in both civil and criminal cases.  I have offered expert testimony on factors that affect the accurate encoding of visual information (for example, how accurately can someone with normal vision perceive an event at a given distance under given light levels?  What is the likelihood of error in “recognizing” a person later if the event occurred within a specified time frame, with a weapon in evidence?).  I have also provided expert testimony on factors that affect the accurate retrieval of previously perceived events (for example, what changes in memory may occur as a result of the passage of time, rehearsal of testimony, structure of questions, or introduction of photo or real lineups?)   I have taught seminars for lawyers and for trial judges to assist them in evaluating the criteria governing the challenging of memorial and perceptual testimony in the courtroom.  I have, with my partner, written an affidavit applying the research evidence on the accuracy of long term memory to a particular instance of a memory retrieval.  The affidavit was submitted in support of a case before the United States Federal Appeals Court, and subsequently submitted to the United States Supreme Court.

Consultation in Human Factors

I am a partner in a human factors consulting firm that provides consulting and research services to legal, business and governmental clients.  We offer legal expertise in the three areas of: (a) evaluation of eyewitness testimony and identification; (b) memory accuracy and recovery; and (c) human factors issues of safety, warnings, human error and accident evaluation, equipment design, and training adequacy.  Our services include consultation with the client, review of existing research, collection of new research if required, and where needed, expert testimony in court.  We assist clients representing either defendants or plaintiffs, involved in either civil or criminal cases.  For business and governmental clients, we provide human factors expertise in areas of equipment design and operation, development and evaluation of training programs, performance assessment, risk and accident analyses, and cost/benefit analyses of proposed changes in operations.

Publications: Books, Articles, Chapters and Books Published, Papers, Presentations, and Unpublished Documents

Available upon request.